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Caid College of Heralds Badge

Minutes of the August 20, 2006 College of Heralds Meeting

Caid College of Heralds Badge

[Note: These submissions appear on the Jan 07 LoAR]

Meeting commenced at 11:00 AM.

In attendance were: Lachlan Crescent, Su Dolphin, Illuminada Silver Trumpet, Hrorek Chevron, Catherine de Winter, Maela Caimbeul, Katherine Grey of York, Damian Silver Fret, Marion Coral, Balthazar Seraph, Mael Anfaid Mac Loeid (Summergate).

Upcoming meetings are: September 24, 2006, October 22, 2006, November 19, 2006 and December 3, 2006.

Laurel has accepted Caid's bid for Known World Heraldic and Scribal Symposium in 2007. This event will be hosted by the Caid College of Heralds in the Barony of Lyondemere in July 2007. Recent progress made includes signing of the contract with the Crowne Plaza Hotel LAX and credit application with the hotel. We should have reservation codes, etc very soon.

Marion Fitzthomas was installed as Coral Macer at Lyondemere Anniversary in late July (after Bruce Draconarius served as Coral Herald Extraordinary for about forty-five minutes...). I'm certain she'll serve the Barony of Lyondemere and Caid well.

The Caid College of Heralds has been invited to participate in the Festival of the Rose, a celebration of Caid's guilds next weekend. Marion Coral is arranging things and looking for heraldic display items for an art display. Flags and banners are good, but we'd like to see other items as well (clothing, gear, etc). Also, if you have funny/challenging speeches that could be read as part of the "voice heraldry demonstration," please send them to Coral.

Crown Tournament will take place prior to the next heraldry meeting. As the new rules are in place, this August meeting is the last opportunity for lists participants to have a name and device in submission if needed. Their Majesties will allow participants that provide a submission as late as the day of the event in order for everyone to have time to adjust to the "new" rules. This is a one-reign opportunity, and Illuminada Silver Trumpet has graciously agreed to support this system.

Unless otherwise noted, all submitters will accept the creation of a holding name, if appropriate. Approved submissions will be forwarded on the September 20, 2006 Letter of Intent.


Angels, Barony of the

Alexander Wardlye. New name change and Laurel resubmission device. Per fess rayonny gules semy of swords Or and Or, in base a phoenix head to sinister issuant from flames gules.

[Name] The submitter's primary name Ulrich Einarsson was registered 05/12. He requests that his previous name be maintained as an alternate name. The submitter desires a masculine name, no other boxes are checked.

Alexander is found in "Given names from Parish Marriage Registers of Northumberland and Durham, 1530-1830", by Douglas Galbi (http://www.galbithink.org/names/ncumb.txt) Alexander is also found in Withycombe pg. 13, as header, dated from 1189.

Wardlye is found in "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" by Julie Kahan (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/parish/surnames.html). It's dated to 1583 and 1562. The name is also found in R&W (p.476, s.n. Wardley) with William de Wardlegh dated to 1296.

[Armory] The submitter's original submission Sable, on a saltire Or overall a phoenix gules the flames pierced by a sword palewise inverted argent was returned by Crescent 06/26/05 for lack of contrast, difficulty in identifying if the phoenix was holding the sword or not, and difficulty in blazoning the relationship between the flames and the sword. His subsequent submission Per fess rayonny gules seme of swords Or and Or, in base a phoenix gules was returned by Laurel (01/06) for improper use of proper flames.

This device is returned for using improperly drawn flames. The flames in this submission are gules voided Or; this depiction of flames proper has been disallowed since the LoAR of April 1995 cover letter. Flames proper are drawn correctly using alternating tongues of Or and gules flame. See the April 1995 Cover Letter for more discussion on proper flames. Unfortunately, when drawn correctly, flames proper cannot be placed on either a gules or Or field. If the phoenix and flames were resubmitted entirely gules, there would be no stylistic problems with them.

This is a complete redraw with a few differences in positioning of the phoenix.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Anastasiia Vierga Ivanova. New device. Per pale purpure and argent, a swan naiant counterchanged.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 01/06.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Athenogenes Alazôn. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name and will accept any changes.

Athenogenes appears 15 times in the "Lexicon of Greek Personal Names" using the search form at http://www.lgpn.ox.ac.uk/names/index.html. This indicates that it was used by at least 15 different people in Classical Greece. We decline to rule on whether this alone is sufficient documentation to support registration. More solid documentation certainly wouldn't hurt.

Alazôn is a descriptive byname meaning "the Wanderer". There are several words in ancient Greek which meant "wanderer" and they were found using the Perseus "Search for English Words in Greek Dictionaries" tool at http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/enggreek?lang=greek&type=begin&options=Sort+Results+Alphabetically (mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de link bad; link goes to perseus.tufts.edu. Ed.). This tool gives the frequency of each word in classical Greek literature, though we are uncertain what the notation means. By clicking on the word, we can get a definition, "wanderer about country", "vagrant", "charlatan", "quack", or "braggart". In addition, we found "Alazon" in Lempriere (p.26). It is a river that runs from Mt. Caucasus into Syrus. Also, an "alazon" is a common character type in classical theater; a braggart or a fool. A lost play by Platus was titled "The Alazon."

While the phrase "the Wanderer" is "SCA compatible" ("Using an an SCA compatible name element such as the Wanderer is also a step from period practice", Karolyne, called the Wanderer, returns 03/04), we believe this protection extends only to the phrase in English, as opposed to the same phrase translated into another language.

The submitter supplies a comment to support the name construction, though fails to indicate where the information comes from:

There is abundant evidence, especially from Asia Minor and from Egypt, of Greeks bearing two names, often linked by a formula such as 'also known as'; and famous people, such as Kings and intellectual figures such as philosophers, often acquired nicknames (King Antigonos Monophthalmos, the 'One Eyed', Dio Chrysostom, the 'golden mouthed' i.e. eloquent); but these cases do not undermine the fundamental principle that the norm was one name only. Among the 215,000 individuals published by LGPN from the Greek mainland, the Islands and the western Mediterranean, only a few hundred have double names.

This name must be returned for lack of documentation (RfS II.2). While the submitter did an admirable job of attempting to justify the submission, we feel it falls short of the necessity to document all name elements and the overall construction of the name. The primary question the submitter needs to address is whether or not period Greek descriptive bynames were ever similar in meaning to "the Wanderer."

Name returned for lack of documentation.


Bjorn Zenthffeer. Laurel resubmission name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. No other boxes are selected. The submitter's previous submission, Bjorn Einarsson was returned 02/06 for conflict with Bj{o,}rn Einarsson (registered 02/06... Bummer!).

Bj{o,}rn is found in Geirr Bassi (p.8) as a masculine, given name. Accents may be omitted in Old Norse so long as they are omitted consonantly.

Zenthffeer is found in "German Names from Kocise, 1307 - 1505" by Guntram von Wolkenstein (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/kosice.htm). Georgius Zenthffeer is dated to 1355.

A name combining Old Norse and German elements is considered one step from period practice (Ulrich Einarsson, 12/05).

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Czina Angielczyka. New badge. Quarterly purpure and gules, in fess a half moon knife and a wake knot argent.

[Name] Submitter's primary name was registered 03/05.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Máirghréad NicChlurain. Kingdom resubmission device. Purpure, a plant of three thistle flowers between three triquetra Or.

[Name] Submitter's name was registered 02/06 as "Máirghréad NicClurain". We believe the registered spelling of the surname to be in error. See separate letter of correction for this name (08/06).

[Armory] The previous submission, Azure, a plant of three thistle flowers between three triquetra each interlaced with an annulet Or was returned by Crescent 12/11/05 for lack of identifiability,

This must be returned since the central charge is not identifiable as drawn (RfS VIII.3). We recommend separating blossoms to make them individually identifiable. Also, the field color blurs the line between azure and purpure. The field color should be redrawn with a more standard, heraldic blue (or purple, if that's what is desired). Furthermore, there is a possible reason for return for identifiability of the secondary charges

This submission is completely redrawn taking Crescent's advice.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Ouregan filia Flavian. Kingdom resubmission name.

[Name] Submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for "6-9th C. Breton living in Amorica (Breton of Welsh origin)". She will allow any changes, and, if changes must be made, she cares most about language/culture. Her previous submission, Aouregon inghean Dara was returned by Crescent 05/23/04 for lack of documentation. As greater than one year has passed since the most recent return, a new submission fee is required by Caid.

Ouregan is documented from Academy of St. Gabriel, report 2838 (http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?2838+0), The documented spellings in this letter are from the 9th century and include "Aourken", "Ourken" and "Ouregan", The Academy's reference is: De Courson, M. Aure/lien, "Cartulaire de L'Abbaye de Redon en Bretagne" (Paris: Imprimrtr Imperiale, 1863).

filia Flavian is a patronymic. Flavian is documented from the website www.catholic.org. It is the given name of a 7th C. bishop of Autun. The construction 'X' filia 'Y' is described in Tangwystl's article "Early Medieval Breton Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/EarlyMedievalBreton.html) Flavian is also listed in Dauzat (p. 258) The note translates as: "A family name, name of two saints in the 4th and 5th century."

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Wolferam Zenthffeer. Kingdom resubmission device. Per saltire Or and sable, a phoenix head to sinister gules and in chief a rapier fesswise sable.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 01/06.

[Armory] The submitter's previous design, Sable, a saltire Or and overall a Phoenix gules, and in chief a rapier fesswise argent was returned by Crescent 08/05 for lack of contrast (RfS VIII.2.b.i). The change from saltire to per saltire fixes this problem.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

William M'Killroy. Kingdom resubmission device. Per fess gules and sable, a fess wavy between three dolphins hauriant Or.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 05/06.

[Armory] The original submission was returned by Crescent 11/05 for redraw as the fess needed more frequent and deeper undulations to be wavy. This emblazon fixes the problem.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Summergate, Canton of

Dietrich Eckhart von Katzenburg. New name and device. Per pale sable and azure, a cat passant guardant Or.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine German name of the 15-16th century, but does not request changes to make the name authentic. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture. Dietrich is found in Bahlow/Gentry (p.86, s.n. Dietrich) "[the name bears] witness to the former popularity of the folk hero Dietrich von Bern (Verona) and to the Dietrich legend..."

Eckhart is documented by the submitter from R&W, but R&W are not reliable for non-English names. Eckhardt and Eckart are found in Bahlow/Gentry (p.103, s.n. Eckhardt, Eckart, Eckert), "...very popular name in the Middle Ages..." We feel that, given the spellings "Eckhardt" and "Eckart", the submitted spelling is reasonable.

von Katzenburg is a hypothetical placename. We found Katzendorf, meaning "cat villiage" from 13th century (http://www.rumaenienburgen.com/transilvania/cata-info.htm). Given this town name, Katzenburg ("cat city") seems reasonable.

[Armory] This is very nice, but unfortunately conflicts with several period coats of arms... Aquitaine (Important non-SCA arms) and Guyenne, Dukes of (Important non-SCA arms) which are both Gules, a lion passant guardant Or. There is one Clear Difference for changes to the field (RfS X.4.a), but no difference given via X.4.e between a lion and a domestic cat. Also, this conflicts with Montenegro (Important non-SCA arms) Gules, a lion passant Or. Here, the additional change of turning the head to the viewer is insufficient to provide the necessary second CD

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for conflict.


Summergate, Canton of. New change of branch arms. Per chevron Or and azure, two laurel wreaths vert and in base on a sun Or a portcullis azure.

[Name] The group name was registered 12/83.

[Armory] The canton's current device, Per chevron Or and vert, two laurel wreaths vert and in base on a sun Or a corral gate proper was registered 12/83.. The submission is accompanied by a petition of support signed by the officers of Summergate stating that the populace had been polled. Unfortunately, this petition does not list the proposed blazon. The Administrative Handbook, VI.5 reads in part, "A valid petition must include a clear description of the item submitted; either the blazon or emblazon is sufficient for a petition regarding branch arms, though both are preferable."

Additionally, the payment for this submission is drawn on a personal checking account, rather than paid for by the group. We will return this check to the submitters. Upon resubmission, please provide payment from an SCA account (either the Canton's or the Barony's account will suffice) and a Transfer of Funds form (see the SCA Exchequer's Handbook).

Device returned for lack of support and lack of payment.


Darach, Shire of

Grímr askmaðr. Kingdom resubmission name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name and will accept minor but not major changes. If the name must be changed, he cares most about the culture ("Viking-Danelaw"). His previous name submission, Grímr jarnhrafn, was returned by Crescent 08/04 for non-period construction of the byname. As greater than one year has elapsed since the previous return, a new fee is required by Caid.

Grímr is found in Geirr Bassi, (p.10), as a masculine given name.

askmaðr is a byname in Geirr Bassi (p.19) meaning "viking, pirate"

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Marta ingen Chonchobar. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name and will accept minor but not major changes. If the name must be changed, she cares most about the sound.

Marta is found in Woulfe, (p.213), cited as borne "by an Abbess of Kildare, in the 8th century." It's the Irish form of the Biblical name Martha.

ingen Chonchobar is a patronymic, "daughter of Conchobar". Conchobar is found in OCM, (p.57), noting Conchobar mac Taidg who died in 882. Chonchobar is the lenited, genitive form.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Brighid inghean Ríoghbhardán. Kingdom resubmission name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes. The submitter's previous submission, Brighid O' Riordan was returned by Crescent 11/04 for lingual incompatability. As there has been greater than one year since the date of her previous return, a new submission fee is required by Caid.

Brighid is found in OCM (pg. 36, s.n. Brigit: Brighid, Bríd), with a note, "Ecclesiastical sources tell us that there were fifteen saints of the name Brigit." This should be sufficient to support the registration of the name. "While we have no evidence of any form of Brighid used as a given name in Gaelic except by saints, the name is registerable as a saint's name, though it is not authentic" (Brigit ingen Meic Thíre Ruaidh, LoAR 01/03. Name was changed to conform to that submitter's request for authenticity). According to OCM more authentic names indicating connection to St Brigit might be, Máel Brigte ('devotee of St Brigit') or Gilla Brigte ('servant of St Brigit'). L - if the submitter is not interested in an authentic name, and Brighid is registerable, do we need the last line? Well... The submitter didn't say "I want an inauthentic name." So, while I'm not going to make a change to make the name authentic, I figured I'd at least let the submitter know what the period forms are, in case they later want to make their name authentic.

Ríoghbhardán is also in OCM (pg. 156, s.n. Rígbarddán: Ríoghbhardán, Ríordán), with the notes, "This early name is found principally in Munser. Rígbarddán mac Con Coirne, kinge of he Eile, died in 1058." Woulfe (Vol 2, p.632, s.n. Ó Ríoghbhardáin, Ó Ríordáin) includes this spelling, glossed as 'royal bard'.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Ruadh mac Gavin mec Dhomhnuill. New name and device. Chevronnelly inverted argent and azure, a ram's head couped sable.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept all changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the sound.

Ruadh is found in Woulfe (p.199, s.n. Ruadhán) glossed as "red" (Ruadhán is a diminutive of Ruadh). The submitter also provides documentation from Black (pg. 687-8, s.n. Reid); "REID... is also an Englishing (sic) of Gaelic Ruadh...."

mac Gavin is a patronymic from Black, (pg. 504-5) "...same as Mac Gowen, q.v. found in Elgin and Galloway. John Riauch McGawin ... 1613". Also, Gavin is in Withycombe (p.127, s.n. Gawain); "the existence of an Old German name Gawin,... and the French Gauvain, Gavin were fairly common in the Middle ages and were still used in the end of the 17th century".

mec Domhnuill is an additional patronymic indicating relationship to a grandfather Domhnuill (from Black, p.485, s.n. Domhnuill): According to Sharon L. Krossa's "A simple guide to constructing 12th C. Scottish Gaelic Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/simplescotgaelicnames12.htm), "There is one instance of a two generation patronymic byname for a man - indicating who his fother and grandfather are." Ms. Krossa indicates the pattern for such a name is, "<given name in nominative case> mac <father's given name in genitive case> mec <father's father's given name in genitive case>" and gives an example,. "Donchad mac Mec Bead mec Hidid"

[Armory] This conflicts with Riordan Robert mac Gregor, Quarterly purpure and argent, a ram's head cabossed sable, armed Or (registered 12/92). There is only one CD, via RfS X.4.a for changes to the field. The change in color of the ram's horns is insufficient to provide an additional CD via RfS X.4.e.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for conflict.


Starkhafn, Barony of

Dalla Ormarsdóttir. Kingdom resubmission device. Vert, a pair of angles palewise braced argent between three Lacy knots Or.

[Name] The submitter's primary name appears on the 07/26/06 Letter of Intent from Caid.

[Armory] The submitter's previous submission with an identical blazon was returned by Crescent 06/06 for redraw. This emblazon fixes the problems of the previous submission.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Ellisif Leifsdóttir. New name.

[Name] The submitter desires a feminine name. She will allow minor but not major changes and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture, "Norse".

Ellisif is found in Geirr Bassi (p.9) as a feminine given name.

Leifsdóttir is a patronymic based upon the masculine given name Leifr found in Geirr Bassi (p.13). Liefsdóttir is a patronymic example found on p.17.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Meadhbh inghean mhic Aoidhghean. Laurel resubmission name.

[Name] The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture. The submitter has two name submissions returned by Laurel:

1. The submitter's first name submission Lia da Firenze was withdrawn by submitter after it appeared on an LoI, erroneously registered 01/05 and corrected in Laurel eratta letter of 09/05.

2. The submitter's name Meadhbh inghean Shéamus, was returned for conflict by Laurel 03/05.

Additionally, Crescent returned the submitter's device submission 06/05 for lack of a primary name.

Meadhbh is found in OCM (p.135, s.n. Meadb) with the note, "This is primarily a female name, being one of the twenty most popular names in later medieval Ireland, but it occurs as a male name in the very early period". Woulfe (p.213, s.n. Meadhbh) confirms the spelling.

inghean mhic Aoidhghean is a relationship name based upon Aoidhghean found in OCM (p.14, s.n. Aedgen); "among the bearers of this name were St Áedgen, bishop and abbot of Fore, who died in 711... and Áedgen, bishop and scribe of Kildare (†865)".

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Rónán Dubh Bearach. New name.

[Name] Submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about an unspecified language/culture (presumably, Gaelic).

Ronán is found in OCM (p.157); "popular name in early Ireland" Woulfe pp.199 States that this is an ancient Irish personal name born by 12 saints.

Dubh is found in OCM (p.77); a descriptive, meaning "black". Woulfe (p.284) confirms the spelling.

Bearach is found in OCM (p.31) and in Woulfe (p.172). The latter source gives this as the given name of a 6th century saint.

This name consists of two given names and a descriptive. The second given name is not in the form of a patronymic. Therefore, this must be returned for lack of documentation of the construction of the name.

Name returned for lack of documentation.


Theodric of the Greathungi. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for "600 Ostrogoth". He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture.

Both Thodric and Greuthungie are documented from Wikipedia. This source must be used with care because there is little control on the scholarship of the articles. It may be used as a starting point, but other documentation is necessary.

Theodric is found in the Academy of St. Gabriel report 1809 (http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?1809+0). The report indicates,

The name <{TH}eodric> was originally of Continental German origin, but was adopted into Old English fairly early on. [1,2,3] ... We have a number of examples of this name: the Latin forms <Theodricus>, <Tedric(us)>, and <Teodericus>, in 1084 and 1086. These may be from the Continental German <Theudoric>, but it is also possible that these are instances of the Old English name. [1,4]

The footnotes for the letter include:

[1] Ekwall, Eilert. Early London Personal Names (Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1947); p.66.

[2] Forssner, Thorvald, _Continental-Germanic Personal Names in England in Old and Middle English Times_ (Uppsala: K.W. Appelbergs Boktryckeri, 1916).

[3] Feilitzen, O. von, _The Pre-Conquest Personal Names of Domesday Book_ (Uppsala: 1937).

[4] Reaney, P. H., & R. M. Wilson, _A Dictionary of English Surnames_ London: Routledge, 1991; Oxford University Press, 1995). s.nn. Terrey, Wise

Grethungi was found by the college as Greuthungi in an online encyclopedia of Roman Emperors published by the University of Colorado (http://www.roman-emperors.org/valens.htm). It is listed as tribe of the Ostrogoths, The College was unsuccessful in adding documentation for the construction of the name. Would an Ostrogoth indicate tribal affiliation in their name and, if so, what form would that byname take? This must be returned for more work (see RfS II.2).

Name returned for lack of documentation.


þorey Sólvardóttir. New name.

[Name] Submitted as þorey S{o,}lvarrsdottir. The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture, "Norse".

Þorey is found in Geirr Bassi (p.16) as a feminine given name.

sólvardóttir is a patronymic byname based upon the feminine given name Sόlv{o,}r found in Geirr Bassi (p.14). On page 18 the way of creating matronimics is discussed. The closest example is þorbj{o,}rg which becomes þorbjargardóttir. We have changed the spelling of the surname to Sólvardóttir, our "best guess" on the correct spelling.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Order of Precedence Notes

Ellisif Leifsdóttir has received awards under the name Elisabeth of Starkhafn.

Grímr askmaðr has received awards under the name Damian McLeod.


Bibliography

Academy of St. Gabriel, report 2838 (http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?2838+0)

Academy of St. Gabriel, report 1809 (http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?1809+0)

Bahlow, Hans. Dictionary of German Names. translated by Edda Gentry, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 1967, English version: 2002. [Bahlow/Gentry 2nd]

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989. [Black]

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1987. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet. [Dauzat]

Galbi, Douglas, "Given names from Parish Marriage Registers of Northumberland and Durham, 1530-1830", (http://www.galbithink.org/names/ncumb.txt)

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977. [Geirr Bassi]

Kahan, Julie, "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/parish/surnames.html).

Katzendorf website (http://www.rumaenienburgen.com/transilvania/cata-info.htm)

Krossa, Sharon, "A simple guide to constructing 12th C. Scottish Gaelic Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/simplescotgaelicnames12.htm)

"Lexicon of Greek Personal Names", search form at http://www.lgpn.ox.ac.uk/names/index.html.

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990. [OCM]

Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors published by the University of Colorado, online (http://www.roman-emperors.org/valens.htm)

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995. [R&W]

"Search for English Words in Greek Dictionaries" tool at http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/enggreek?lang=greek&type=begin&options=Sort+Results+Alphabetically (mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de link bad; link goes to perseus.tufts.edu)

Tangwystl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Early Medieval Breton Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/EarlyMedievalBreton.html)

von Wolkenstein, Guntram, "German Names from Kocise, 1307 - 1505" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/kosice.htm).

website www.catholic.org

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 3rd ed. 1977. [Withycombe]

Woulfe, Patrick. Sloinnte Gaetheal ir Gall: Irish Names and Surnames. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1967. [Woulfe]


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