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Minutes of the December 11, 2005 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Jun 06 LoAR]

Meeting commenced at 11:00 AM.

In attendance were: Lachlan Crescent, Su Dolphin, Thomas Brownwell, Vivienne Recorder, Illuminada Silver Trumpet, Santin Gold Forest, Damien Sable Fret, Kean Trident, Selene Aurum, Catherine de Winter, Balthazar Seraph, Martin Al Sahid, Hrorek Chevron, Christopher Golden Rose, Christopher Thomas "CT" Black Lion (An Tir), Kurt Sommelier, John ap Griffin, Cei Myghchaell, Honor Grenehart, Iain Glic macRobert.

Upcoming meetings are: January 22, 2006, February 05, 2006, March 12, 2006, April 02, 2006, May 07, 2006 and June 25, 2006.

Policy change from Crescent:

The Administrative Handbook of the College of Arms requires that the Principal Herald (or a designated deputy) inform submitters, in writing, of any returns at the kingdom level (AH V.A.2). Furthermore, the Administrative Handbook requires that the Principal Herald keep a copy of all submission-related correspondence (AH X.B.2).

In order to comply with these requirements, as of the beginning of the New Year, the Office of Crescent will directly send written notification of kingdom return.

Previously this task was a duty of the herald of each submitter's local group. This is possibly the most difficult task for a local herald to perform. Frequently, the local herald does not have contact information for the submitter, may have never met the submitter, and may not even be aware that a submission was made from their territory, especially if the submission was accepted at a kingdom consult table.

Local heralds should still consider it their duty to inform each submitter in their territory of each decision regarding their submissions, especially in the case of kingdom returns. This will serve as a backup to the official Crescent notification, and hopefully will make it clear to the submitter that there is a friendly, local herald to help answer their questions. This will require keeping a close eye on the monthly minutes (available online at http://www.sca-caid.org/herald/minutes.html) and the Laurel Letters of Acceptance and Return (found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/loar/).

As of the beginning of the year, however, the local herald is no longer required to send written notification. A letter, email, telephone call, or conversation at an event or council meeting are all sufficient.

Submissions marked with "†" were Pended from the November meeting. Unless otherwise noted, all submitters will accept the creation of a holding name, if appropriate. Approved submissions will be forwarded on the February 22, 2006 Letter of Intent.


Altavia, Barony of

Laertes McBride. New augmentation. Vert, on a saltire Or five quatrefoils slipped vert and for augmentation, in chief on an escutcheon azure four crescents conjoined in saltire horns outward within a bordure argent.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 08/99.

[Armory] The submitter's arms were registered 08/99. The submitter was granted an augmentation of arms from the crown of Caid on 10/08/05 (Great Western War grand court).

The augmentation conflicts with the kingdom's badge specified for this purpose, therefore the submitter may use it without explicit permission to conflict.

The saltire is drawn a little low in order to accommodate the escutcheon. We do not feel it is so bad as to require return, but rather recommend the submitter draw the saltire centered in the future.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Thorin Ó Séaghda. Kingdom resub name and device. Per pale gules and vert, in chevron an axe argent hafted proper and a needle and on a chief argent three trefoils slipped vert.

[Name] Submitted as Thorin O'Seaghdua. This name was checked at the 10/02/05 meeting but was returned for missing forms. The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 10th century Viking-Irish, will accept minor but not major changes.

Thorin is recognizable as a Tolkien name, but can in fact be documented from Searle (p445, s.n. Thor-) and (p315, s.n. -in). The authors point to the names Eodin (s.n. Eodwine), Ordin (s.n. Ordwine), Cawelin, and Immin as examples of this construction.

Ó Séaghda is found in MacLysaght (s.n. Shea, pg. 269). The author states that the modern Gaelic form is Ó Sé. We believe this name is close, though clear of the SCA name Thorland O'Shea (Feb. 1990). We have changed the spelling in order to match documentation.

The combination of Anglo-Saxon and Gaelic is one step from period practice (Eithne of Cantwaraburg, 10/02).

[Armory] This device was returned at the 11/06/05 meeting for lack of a name.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Angels, Barony of

Máirghréad NicChlurain. New device. Azure a plant of three thistle flowers between three triquetra each interlaced with an anulet Or.

[Name] The submitter's name appears on the 10/26/05 Letter of Intent.

[Armory] This must be returned since the central charge is not identifiable as drawn (RfS VIII.3). We recommend separating blossoms to make them individually identifiable. Also, the field color blurs the line between azure and purpure. The field color should be redrawn with a more standard, heraldic blue (or purple, if that's what is desired).

Furthermore, there is a possible reason for return for identifiability of the secondary charges. We note the return of Alessandra da Montefeltro Azure, a triquetra interlaced with a heart voided and on a chief Or an open book between two lozenges gules (returned 05/05):

The opinion of the College is that the primary charge on this device is unidentifiable. RfS VIII.3 states, "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability. Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size, marginal contrast, excessive counterchanging, voiding, or fimbriation, or by being obscured by other elements of the design." In this case, the heart, a charge not usually seen voided, loses its identifiability when voided and interlaced with the triquetra.

Crescent declines to rule on whether the change from voided heart to annulet is enough to fix this issue.

Device returned for lack of identifiability.


Ysabeau Anais Roussot du Lioncourt. New device change. Per pale gules and sable, a wingless griffin rampant incensed and queue-forchy within a bordure Or.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 03/89.

[Armory] If registered, the submitter wishes her current device, Per pale gules and pean, a wingless griffin rampant, incensed and queue-fourchy, within a bordure embattled Or (registered 03/89) to be retained as a badge.

This is clear of Quarterly vert and gules, a griffon sergeant, a bordure Or (Isabella de la Griffon d'Aquataine, registered 02/98). There is a CD via X.4.a for changes to the field. By precedent there is a CD via X.4.e for type between a winged creature and a wingless creature. For example, Ruaidhri ua Ceallaigh, 09/01 - "[winged boars vs. boars] There is one CD for the number of boars and another for removing the wings..."

We believe this is clear of Per pale gules & sable a lion rampant within an orle Or (Isabeau Celeste de la Vallière, registered 08/94). There is clearly a CD via X.4.e for change in type of peripheral charge. The other necessary CD via X.4.e for change in type of primary charge is less clear. Elsbeth Laurel writes, "We leave open the question as to whether a wingless griffin and a lion rampant should be considered significantly different in the future." (William Geoffrey the Rogue, 07/99) Half of the wingless griffin is not a lion, and therefore we feel it is reasonable to assume a CD.

We are less certain whether this is clear of Sable, a two-headed tyger rampant heads addorsed within a bordure Or (Marcus Isenax, registered 11/96). We have one CD via X.4.a for changes to the field. The other CD must come via X.4.e for change from a two-headed tyger to a wingless griffin. The Caidan College was not as successful finding precedent, which even came close to this issue. Typically, there is no CD given between two headed animals and the same animal with one head (the most common case being eagles). Here again, we are changing the beast from all tyger to half eagle, half lion. Despite the similarity between a tyger's head and a griffin's head, we think these are clear. We have decided to pass this up for discussion by the College of Arms, especially since the submitter already has a device so it should not hurt her to be a "test case".

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

Alexander Cunninghame. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 12th-14th century Scotland. He will accept all changes and if changes must be made, he cares most about the meaning, "From the Cunningham district of Scotland."

Alexander is found in Withycombe (p13, s.n. Alexander). It is dated in this spelling to the 12th C.

Cunninghame is found in Black (p192, s.n. Cuningham). It is the second spelling in the header, undated in this spelling. Close variants date to the 1200's. R & W (p121, s.n. Cunningham), has nothing useful to add.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Brianna de Blare. New name.

[Name] The submitter has checked no boxes.

Brianna is the submitter's legal given name. A copy of her driver's license is attached.

de Blare is found in Black (p.81, s.n. Blair). It is dated in this spelling to 1214 and 1241; Alexander de Blare.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Catherine Hunter. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested a feminine name. She will accept no changes.

Catherine is in Withycombe (p.186, s.n. Katherine), where it is undated in this spelling.

Hunter is in Black (p.370) dated in this spelling to 1259. In Morgan & Morgan (p.167, s.n Meurig), the name is dated 1575.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Elena Mercante. New name.

[Name] The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept all changes, and if changes must be made, she cares most about the sound.

Elena is in De Felice Nomi, (header, pg.139). It is listed as the name of the mother of Constantine I the Great, and appears to have been in common use since then.

Mercante is in De Felice Cognomi (header, pg.167). The entry appears to affirm that the name is medieval.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Fionnghuala inghean Uilliam. New name.

[Name] The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture of the name (Irish).

Fionnghuala is found in OC&M (p.103, s.n. Finnguala). It is the first spelling after the colon. "Extremely popular... in the later middle ages".

inghean Uilliam, "daughter of William". Uilliam is found in OC&M (p.175). It was brought to Ireland by the Normans.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Helga gylðir. New name and device. Per fess sable and argent, a wolf passant and a wolf sejant contourney ululant counterchanged.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for "Viking Age". She will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture.

Helga can be found in Gierr Bassi (pg. 11).

gylðir is also found in Gierr Bassi (pg. 22) and is a byname meaning "howler, wolf".

Name and Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Josseline Margretyinge. New name and device. Per bend gules and sable, a dog rampant Or.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and wants to be called if any changes are made. If changes must be made, she cares most about the sound.

Josseline is in Dauzat (p. 346, s.n. Josse). It is undated in this spelling.

Margretyinge is in Ekwall (p. 314, s.n. Margaretting), dated to 1408 in this spelling.

[Armory] This is clear of Azure estencely argent, a wolf rampant Or (Alexander Kirkpatrick, registered 03/04) with one CD via X.4.a for changes to the field and another via X.4.b for addition of the secondary charge group, estencely. According to precedent, estencely is a strewn charge group, not a field treatment. "There is a CD for the type of secondary charges, and two more for the difference between a bend sinister ermine (a single tincture) and a bend sinister argent estencely sable (a single tincture with a semy of charges)." (Elfwyn of Osprey, 05/96)

Name and Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Talitha de Barde. New name and device. Argent, a chevron sable between two thistles purpure slipped and leaved vert and a chalice gules.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for "Scottish/Irish" culture. She will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made she cares most about the meaning, "poet". She also states, "If de Barde doesn't work Bardán will be okay" (Bardán found in OCM p.29)

Talitha is the submitter's modern given name as documented by her California driver's license. This is a perfectly acceptable application of the Legal Name Allowance (RfS II.4) but application of this rule is defined as one step from period practice. Therefore, while this name may be forwarded to Laurel, it is not authentic, as the submitter requests.

de Barde. Black (p.42-43, s.n. Baird) "This name appears to be territorial in origin. A family "de Bard" or "de Barde" Henry de Barde ... dated to 1202."

[Device] The "argent" has been represented by either dark gray or silver marker that has then been color photocopied. It is not an acceptable shade (for argent, it is best to leave the area paper white), and makes it very difficult to discern the thistles. Also, the color photocopier used was not very accurate, as colored bands streak across the blazon. This must be returned for redraw.

These thistles are not, in fact "proper". Proper thistles are green except for the "tuft" at the top of the flower, though this is not a reason for return.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


Thomas Hewes of Islington. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for "11th-13th Century England". He will accept no changes. If changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture.

Thomas is found in Withycombe (pg. 280) where it is dated to 1086-1600.

Hewes is found in R&W (s.n. Hugh, pg. 242) where it is dated 1524 (Elysabeth Hewes).

of Islington is a locative. The place name is found in Ekwall (header, pg. 267) where it is undated in this spelling. There are two different locations with this name (with different derivations for the name). Both locations date to the Domesday Book.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Carreg Wen, Shire of

Samutani Sukenobu. New name.

[Name] The submitter desires a male name, and will accept minor but not major changes.

Samutani is a constructed surname made up of the two kenji, Samu_ "Cold" dated to 1572 (Solveig Throndardottir, p. 156) and tani "Valley", dated to 1568 (Solveig Throndardottir, p. 145).

Sukenobu is a nanori (a nanori is an adult given name.) found in Solveig's "Historical Masculine Naneri Table", p. 354, dated to 1332.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Dun Or, Shire of

Gabriel Archer. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes.

Gabriel is found in Withycombe (header, pg.123 ff). It is a biblical name in use in England as early as 1199.

Archer is found in R&W (s.n. Archer, pg. 6), also dated in this spelling to 1199. (How's that for temporal compatability!)

Name approved and sent to Laurel.


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Dirk Ivanovich. Resub Kingdom badge. Or, a gorgon's head cabossed gules.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 10/05.

[Armory] This badge was overly stylized and returned at the 11/06/05 meeting for a redraw. It has been redrawn per the request of the submitter. This was conflict checked and found to be free of conflict.

This is clear of (Fieldless) a seraph gules (Serephina Anlaia, registered 10/90) with one difference for the addition of a field and another for the difference in type of head.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Edward Thorp of York. Resub Kingdom name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a male name. He will accept major but not minor changes to his name. He cares most about the language/culture.

Edward is found in Withycombe p. 94, s.n. Edward) "...from the accession of Edward I in 1272, there was an Edward on the throne for over a century (until 1377). From that time it has been in regular use."

Crescent returned the submitter's previous name, "Edward Thorp" 11/05 for conflict with Edward Thorpe (Webster's Biographical Dictionary, s.n. Thorpe, pg. 1467). The addition of the locative, "of York", clears this conflict.

Thorp is found in R&W (p. 445, s.n. Thorp) with Robert de Thorp and William in le Thorp, 1327. "From one of the numerous places named Thorp."

of York. Ekwall (p 545, s.n. York) says of York, "Scandinavians at an early date came to know the name, and in their speech it became Iorvik, found in Egill's Arinbjarnardrapa of 962. A later development of this is Iork, founding later ON sources, as in Fagskinna, In this form the name was re-adopted by the English." It is not date in this spelling, but is the header spelling.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Saerlaith ighen mhic Neill . New device. Azure a seahorse Or and on a chief wavy argent three estoiles saltirewise azure.

[Name] The submitter's name appears on Caid's 09/21/05 Letter of Intent.

[Armory] The line of division on the chief is difficult to distinguish. Each "wave" is not drawn deeply enough. It must be returned for this reason (RfS VIII.3).

An estoile is typically drawn with one set of points pointing straight up and down. While not a reason for return, the orientation must be explicitly blazoned.

Device returned for redraw.


Wilhelm of Caid. New badge. Or, an emmet gules.

[Name] Holding name registered 04/05. This was submitted under his returned name, Wilhelm Grimm and changed by the Caidan college.

[Armory] We note that an emmet is a type of ant. The submitter requests that we use this term, so we are forwarding this submission noting that Laurel has used this term in blazons in the past (Daffyd of Emmett, Gyronny of twelve gules and Or, an emmet (ant) sable. Registered 03/87).

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Nordwache, Barony of

Charles de Grey. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture (unspecified).

Charles is found in Withycombe (p.62, s.n. Charles) where it is dated to 1273.

de Grey is found in R&W (p.203, s.n. Gray) with Henry de Gray 1196 and Philip le Grey 1296.

This name conflicts with the real-world Earl Charles Grey (after whom "Earl Grey Tea" is named). By previous precedent, he, and his son, also named Charles Grey are important enough to protect (Charles le Grey, returned 09/01). The addition of "de" is insufficient to clear this conflict (see RfS V.1.a.ii).

Name returned for conflict.


Muireann an Ruadh Madadh-alluidh inghean Eoin. New name and device. Argent, a wolf statant gules and on a chief sable a decrescent gules fimbriated argent.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept all changes and if changes must be made, she cares most about the meaning ("byname 'the red wolf'"). As the submitter puts it, "The submitter is willing to drop the patronymic if this is necessary for registration, but really wants a Gaelic form of 'the red wolf' as a byname."

Muireann a feminine given name in OCM (p.141, s.n. Muirenn: Muireann). It is glossed as "sea-white, sea-fair". The Sister of Finnechta, King of Leinster who died 831 had this name.

an Ruadh Madadh-alluidh is a byname supposedly meaning "the red wolf". The submission form makes reference to "attached web articles". Unfortunately, copies did not reach us. A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language by Malcolm Maclennan (Acair and Mercat Press, reprinted 1997) does list "ruadh" with the definition "red" (p.274, s.n. ruadh) and "madadh-alluidh" with the definition "wolf" (p.218, s.n. madadh). Gaelic is a language where the adjective follows the noun, so this element should be reversed; "an Madadh-alluidh Ruadh" (an interesting side note is that "Madadh-ruadh" is glossed as "fox"). Our research does not show women with such complex descriptive bynames, but the "Index of Names in Irish Annals" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/) does show a few men with descriptive bynames of the pattern "the [noun] [adjective]" such as "in Gai Bernaig" (the Broken Spear) and "in Gai Móir" (the Large Spear).

While attempting to find justification for use of the descriptive byname, we found similar descriptive bynames which were used in period. "Ruadh" alone is a well-known byname which describes, literally, the color of the person's hair. It is found in Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Ruadh.shtml). The source data includes many names including "Aodh Ruadh Ua Domhnaill". "Cu," meaning "[the] Wolf/Hound" was also frequently used ("Index of Names in Irish Annals", http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Cu.shtml). Here, it is used symbolically, indicating that the person is as brave and noble as the wolf. Mari's source data includes "Conall Cu mac Áedha meic Ainmirech" (d. 600-604).

inghean Eoin "daughter of Eoin". Eoin is a masculine given name in OCM (p.88,). Woulfe, p.183 says the genitive form is identical to the nominative case (and vowels do not lenite).

We feel, therefore that Muireann Ruadh inghean Eoin or Muireann Cu inghean Eoin are the closest solidly-documentable forms we could come up with, but they do not match the submitter's desired meaning. We are uncertain whether Muireann Cu Ruadh inghean Eoin would work, but it may be worth a try. We are less sure of Muireann Madadh-alluidh Ruadh ingean Eoin since we have no evidence the noun was used in period names, but may also be worth a try at Laurel.

At this time, we are returning this name to give the submitter time to view this documentation, add more if she wishes, and to consider her choices for a resubmission.

[Armory] RfS VIII.3 reads (in part), "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." While a crescent is simple enough to be fimbriated (Kierdre of Boolteens, 10/99. "Because the crescent is simple enough to fimbriate"), it's location here, a charge upon a chief, is not at the center of the design.

Name returned for further work. Device returned for redraw.


Starkhafn, Barony of

Emmeline Dernelove. Laurel Resub device. Per pale argent and purpure, a heart within a Bowen knot crosswise counterchanged.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 02/05.

[Armory] Laurel returned the submitter's previous design (08/05), Argent, a heart purpure within a Bowen knot crosswise sable for conflict with Argent, a Bowen knot in cross sable (Darcy Graham, 02/81). Changes to the field and changes to the tincture of the charges clear this conflict.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Svana skósveinn. New name.

[Name] The submitter will accept minor but not major changes.

Svana is in Geirr Bassi , pg.15 as a feminine given name.

skósveinn is also in Geirr Bassi , page 27 as a descriptive byname meaning "body-servant, valet".

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Wintermist, Shire of

Fj{o,}rleif inn heppni. New name.

[Name] The submitter will accept minor but not major changes.

Fj{o,}rleif is found in Gierr Bassi (header, p.9) as a feminine given name.

inn heppni is a descriptive byname meaning "lucky, happy" found in Gierr Bassi (p.22, s.n. heppni).

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Aonghus Lyndesay. New name and device. Vert, an eagle argent and a sinister tierce checky sable and argent.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he most cares about language/culture of mid 16th C Scotland.

Aonghus is found in Black (p. 23, s.n. Angus), undated in this spelling but listed as "Gaelic".

Lyndesay is found in the "Surnames" section of Sara L. Friedemann's article "Names of Women mentioned in the Perth Guildry Book 1464-1598" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/perth.html). It is dated to 1550.

[Armory] This is clear of Vert, a chimney swift migrant palewise argent. [Chaetura pelagica] (John of Ean Airgead, called the Mad Celt, 10/79) with one clear difference for the addition of the tierce and another for the change in posture of the primary charge (if not the change in type as well).

Name and Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Order of Precedence Notes

None.


Bibliography

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989. [Black]

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1987. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet. [Dauzat]

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986. [Cognomi]

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986. [Nomi]

Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. 4th ed. Oxford University, New York, 1960. [Ekwall]

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977. [Geirr Bassi]

Maclennan, Malcolm, A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. Acair Ltd and Mercat Press, 1979, reprinted 1997.

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. 6th ed. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1985. [MacLysaght]

Mari Elspeth nic Bryan (Kathleen M. O'Brien) "Index of Names in Irish Annals". http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/.

Morgan, T.J. and Morgan, Prys, Welsh Surnames. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985 [Morgan & Morgan]

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990. [OCM]

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995. [R&W]

Sara L. Friedemann's article "Names of Women mentioned in the Perth Guildry Book 1464-1598" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/perth.html)

Searle, William George. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. 1897. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,. Facsimile ed. 1969.

Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan. Carlsbad, N. M.: The Outlaw Press, 1994

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 3rd ed. 1977. [Withycombe]


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