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Minutes of the September 11, 2005 meeting

NOTE: Minutes of the September 25th meeting are below.

[Note: These submissions appear on the Feb 06 LoAR]

Meeting commenced at 11:00 AM.

In attendance were: Lachlan Crescent, Su Dolphin, Illuminada Silver Trumpet, Martin Al Sahid, Thomas Brownwell, Gaius Auklandus, Roderick der Gelehrte, Meala Caimbeul, Cassandre Loustaunau, Jordan MacLachlan, Santin Gold Forest, and Christopher Golden Rose.

The schedule for the rest of the year: October 2nd, November 6th, and December 4th. At the December meeting we will have a Holiday party with deserts and gifts. If you wish to participate in the gift exchange, bring a wrapped, anonymous gift valued at less than $20.

Crown Tourney is coming up next week. Heralds are needed and appreciated.

Collegium is coming up and there are lots of Heraldic classes this time. There will be a Crescent road show and there will also be a Wreath visit to see how submissions are handled at the known-world level.

GWW is approaching. Cormac would love to have help crying the camp. Illuminada needs assistance at the consultation table.

KWHS is being moved from New Orleans to Memphis TN. The dates are not finalized yet.

There was a June LoAR with two Caidan actions (both reblazons of registered items). There was a discussion on conflict counting involving various willow trees. Hungarian name construction and conflict checking was clarified.

Submissions marked with "†" were accepted at Pennsic War, those marked with "*" were accepted at Highland War. Approved submissions will be forwarded to Laurel on the October 26, 2005 Letter of Intent.


Altavia, Barony of

Gabriel Gunn. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will allow minor though not major changes (form altered prior to submission), and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture (unspecified).

Gabriel is found in Withycombe (s.n. Gabriel(le), p. 123) dated to 1199, which states, "in the Middle Ages... used... as a man's name."

Gunn is found in R&W (s.n. Gun, p. 208) with Robert Gunn dated 1297.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Angels, Barony of

Bjorn Einarsson. New name and device. Purpure, on a bend between a hunting horn and an axe Or three pawprints palewise purpure.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made he cares most about the language/culture (unspecified, presumably Old Norse).

Bjorn is found in Nordskt runnamlnslexikon by Lena Peterson. It is also found in "Viking Names found in the Landnamabok" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html) with 42 occurances. We note that Geirr Bassi (p. 8) shows the name spelled with o-ogonek {o,}, while Peterson shows it with o-umlaut {o:}.

Einarr is found in The Old Norse Name by Geirr Bassi Haraldsson (p.9). There are 28 instances of the name. Also included is a printout compiled by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Sara L. Friedemann), www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html. The patronymic form Einarsson is correctly formed according to Geirr Bassi p.17 (Geirr->Geirsson is the closest example).

[Armory] We had a very difficult time describing the paws in this emblazon, for that reason, we are returning this for further consultation with the submitter and a redrawing (RfS VII.7.a, .b). Additionally, the paw pads for a brown bear are actually black rather than yellow as drawn in this emblazon. We recommend to the submitter that they draw the axe completely palewise upon resubmission.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


Máirghréad NicChlurain. New name.

[Name] Submitted as Máirghréad Arabella NicChlurain. The submitter is interested in a feminine name. No other boxes are checked.

Máirghréad is a feminine name in OCM (s.n. Márgrég, Máirgrég, Máirgréc: Máirghréad, Máiréad p. 134); "[The name] became relatively popular in Ireland after the fourteenth century."

Arabella - Withycombe (header, p. 29), dates this name to 1225. The author notes that this name is "...originally Scots", with a 12th C spelling of Orabilis.

To document, NicChlurain, the submitter supplies a birth certificate indicating that she is the daughter of Gabrielle NicChlurain (registered 06/76).

Use of the grandfather clause requires that the new submission contains no problematical elements that did not occur in the original submission. Gabrielle NicChlurain is a lingual mix of French (Gabrielle) and Scots and Gaelic combined in a single name element (NicChlurain). French/Scots and French/Gaelic are both registerable, but one step from period practice. NicChlurain is no longer registerable alone, since a single name element must be from a single orthography (RfS III.1.a).

The two given names are Gaelic and Scots, respectively, and could be considered a step from period practice when combined in a single name. Also, double-given names are not registerable in Gaelic names.

In order to avoid the problems of this name, we are dropping the second given name. This leaves the name more-or-less Gaelic, and introduces no problems that are not grandfathered to the submitter.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Mirosława z Gosprzydowy. New device. Vert, a lily of the valley plant Or blossomed argent and a dexter tierce Or.

[Name] Her name was registered 12/04.

[Armory] Her previous submission, Azure, a lily of the valley plant Or blossomed argent between flaunches Or was returned by Crescent 03/05 for conflict with June of Morgan's Hall (12/96) Azure, a day lily plant with three blossoms Or. Changing the field to vert adds the necessary second CD.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

* Cynthia de Wickersham. New alternate name. Véný Smiðsdóttír.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 04/90. The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made she cares most about the meaning, "daughter of the smith".

Véný is found in Gierr Bassi as a feminine, Old Norse Name (p.16).

Smiðsdóttír, daughter of the smith. It is derived from Smiðr (p. 28, meaning "smith") which becomes Smiðs in the genitive and as a patronymic is Smiðsdottír. This is formed according to the rules found in Gierr Bassi on p. 17. The author lists as an example Grimr -> Grimsdóttír.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Carreg Wen, Shire of

Alice le Fayre. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. No other boxes were checked.

Alice is found in Withycombe (pp. 15-16, s.n. Alice), dated to 1273.

le Fayre is found in R&W (p.160 s.n. Fair, et al.), with "Thomas le Fayre" 1332.

We note that "Stronger than Magic" by Heather Cullman has a primary character named Alys le Fayre. We found this by doing a Google search and note that none of the assembled heralds have ever heard of this book or its author. We do not believe this name is important enough to protect.

Unfortunately this name is phonetically the same as the submitter's mundane name, Alice Laufer, and therefore we must return it for auditory conflict (RfS V.1.a). The given names are identical. We have no reason to believe that "Laufer" and "le Fayre" are related in any way. However, the sound of the two bynames are approximately as similar as the examples "Mary" and "Marie" sited as equivalent in RfS V.1.a.i.

Name returned for conflict with modern name.


Darach, Shire of

Katayama Chikara. New alternate name, Marciano Dragonetti and badge. Sable, a dragon within a bordure embattled argent.

[Name] Submitted as Marciano Dragonette. The submitter's primary name was registered 01/97. The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 14th to 16th C. Italy. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made he cares most about the sound and language (Italian indicated).

Marciano is found as a given name in "The Online Catasto project" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/first_names.html) with a single instance.

Dragonetti is found as a surname (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/family_names.html). We were unable to find the submitted spelling so we have changed it to conform to the submitted documentation.

[Armory] This form has been photo-reduced to be too small to be accepted by Laurel. The cherries are impossible to distinguish at their current size. Also, the bordure is not drawn thick enough and appears to be either a bordure compony or the Spanish "Bordure dentilada" instead of the intended embattled. Altogether, all elements must be drawn in a fashion that they are easily identifiable. This must be returned for these reasons (RfS VII.7.a, VIII.3).

This design was not conflict checked.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


Dun Or, Barony of

* Angharad de Lambrok. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes in this name and if changes must be made, she is most interested in the sound.

Angharad is found in Withycombe (s.n. Anchored, p. 22). "Angharad is found in Herefordshire in 1207."

de Lambrok "of Lambrok". The place name is found in Ekwall (s.n. Lambrook, p. 285). This spelling is dated to 1201.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Hew Mar. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept no changes. If changes must be made, he cares most about the sound.

Hew is found in "Masculine Given Names Found in the 1523 Subsidy Roll for York and Ainsty, England (sorted alphabetically)" by Karen Larsdatter (Karen Harris) (sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york16/given-masc-alpha.htm) (s.n. Hugh, Hew)

Mar is found in "Surnames in 15th Century York" by Karen Larsdatter (Karen Harris) (sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york15/surnames-alphabetical.htm).

We believe that this is clear of the SCA name Hugh Mann, registered Jan '02. While certainly a "joke name" this is not so obtrusive as to require return.

This name falls into the "joke name" category, as it is phonetically identical to the word human. The following precedent applies:

The fact that this is a "joke name" is not, in and of itself, a problem. The College has registered a number of names, perfectly period in formation, that embodied humor: Drew Steele, Miles Long, and John of Somme Whyre spring to mind as examples. (Porsche Audi, August, 1992, pg. 28)

Hugh Mann is no more obtrusively modern than Drew Steele, Miles Long, and John of Somme Whyre cited above. As such, we are registering the name. [Hugh Mann, 01/02, A-Atlantia]

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Khalida al-Khansa'. New device. Per pale gules and sable, a lotus flower in profile argent.

[Name] This name was registered 03/04.

[Armory] This conflicts with per chevron vert and sable a lotus flower in profile argent (Katja Dara 10/95) with a single CD for changes to the field (RfS X.4.a.i).

Device returned for conflict.


Kolfinna K{o,}ttr. Laurel resub Household name Marbæli and new badge. Gules, two maidens statant respectant, the dexter maintaining a bowl of apples and the sinister maintaining a drinking horn argent.

[Name] The submitter's primary name was registered 08/03. The previous household name submission (Reistarastadir) was returned on the LoAR of 10/04 for not following period Norse naming practices. This resubmission is a new name.

The submitter provides documentation from the Landnamabok (http://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm), the Northvegr.org translation (http://www.northvegr.org/lore/landnamabok/021.php) and Richard Cleasby's and Guðbrandr Viogfusson's An Icelandic-English Dictionary (http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/oi_cleasbyvigfusson_about.html) showing Marbæli as a farm belonging to one Eyvindur hani. The Landnamabok dates to the 13th C, while the placename dates to the 10th C. The name literally means "the farm by the sea."

The submitter provided the example of Eplaheimr that was registered in 01/02 [Ságadís Duncansdaughter and Sigmundr Hákonsson] which translates to "apple home" or "apple land," as a registered household name of Old Norse origin where the designator is "built into" the name. But we are unsure if "bæli" is similarly acceptable as the designator, or if it needs the designator "House." We are forwarding this without an explicit designator and ask for the College's assistance and advice.

[Armory] This is to be associated with the household name "Marbæli". Since the "apples" depicted are generic round objects, we are forwarding the blazon as such and suggest the submitter add more definition in the future.

Name and badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lyondemere, Barony of

Cecilia Lightfoot. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name appropriate for 16th C England, though she does not request changes to make the name authentic. She will accept no changes.

Cecilia is found in Withycombe (header, p. 60). The author lists a St. Cecilia dated to 177 AD, and a Cecilia Cur dated to 1197.

To document Lightfoot the submitter provided copies from Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of all Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, From the Earliest Times to 1900, compiled by John Venn and J. A. Venn. Part I p.84 Lists Edward Lightfoot who received his Bachelor's degree in 1584-5 and William Lightfoot who received his Bachelor's degree in 1572-3. R&W (header, p. 279) date the surname to 1206.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Eliane Duran. New name and device. Azure, a falcon ermine belled and jessed Or.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture (unspecified).

Eliane is a feminine name found in Dauzat "Dictionnaire des Noms et Prenoms de France" (s.n. Elie, p. 234), undated. A feminine form of the Hebrew prophet Eli.

Duran is a locative byname from Southern France found in Dauzat, "Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Liex de la France" (p.256). In addition, Dauzat "Dictionairre des Noms et Prenoms" (s.n. Durand, p. 225), lists it as a rare form of "Durand". The Latinized form "Durandus" is dated to the 9th C, but none of the other forms are explicitly dated.

[Device] Crescent compliments the submitter on her period-style design. No conflicts found.

Name approved and Device forwarded to Laurel.


Order of Precedence Notes

Angharad de Lambrok is listed in the OP under Amanda of Dun Or, she does have an AoA from Darkwell War 2002 though she does not have an Acorn award. It is likely there have been two Amanda of Dun Or's in Caid's history.



Minutes of the September 25, 2005 meeting

Meeting commenced at 10:00 AM.

In attendance were: Lachlan Crescent, Su Dolphin, Illuminada Silver Trumpet, Honore Grenehart, Vivienne Recorder, Selene Aurum, Staimna Grauamdha, Wulfric Forlong of Falconhurst, Jon Thomme de Claydon and Jason Thomas the Wanderer.

This meeting was held on Sunday at Collegium Caidis. All submissions herein were accepted at the heraldic consultation table at Collegium Caidis on Saturday. Approved submissions will be forwarded on the October 26, 2005 Letter of Intent.


Altavia, Barony of

Amina Sherifa de Talavera de la Reina. New name change.

[Name] Her previous primary name, Sheryl of Thespis was registered 01/73. The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes (form altered prior to submission) and if her new name is approved she wishes to release her old name.

Amina is a feminine Arabic given name found in Salahuddin Ahmed, "A Dictionary of Muslim Names" (p.238) glossed as "Trustworthy, honest". It is a feminization of Amin, p.16.

Sherifa is also found in the same source as a feminine Arabic given name on p. 330. It is an alternate spelling of Sharifa. It is glossed as "noble, honorable, high born". It is a feminization of Sharif, p.199.

According to precedent, Sharif, and the feminization Sherifa are not registerable in SCA names, as they have been demonstrated to have been used as titles, rather than names, in period.

Sharif was documented as a given name found in Azieza Hamid's The Book of Muslim Names. However, no evidence could be found that Sharif was used as a given name in period.

Additionally, Sharif is a title. Al-Jamal states "[t]he title sharif is used by the real descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima's son Hasan..." RfS VI.1 states in part:

Titles like Earl and Duke generally may not be used as Society names, even if the title is the submitters legal name. Names documented to have been used in period may be used, even if they were derived from titles, provided there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank. For example, Regina the Laundress is acceptable but Regina of Germany is not.

(Sharif 'Abd al-Salam ibn Salah. Returns, 08/03)

Zarifa is a recognized transliteration of the Arabic word for wife of the Sharif, the ruler of Morocco. Zarifa is therefore a title, so it cannot be used.

(Elena Zarifa bint Hakim y Illa'n, Returns 09/83)

The apparent presumption of use of the title Sherifa is exacerbated by the addition of the locative. In addition, no evidence has been found for the use of two given names in Arabic. Lacking such evidence, two given names are not registerable in an Arabic name. As the submitter does not allow major changes, we cannot drop one of the given names in order to forward this name.

de Talavera de la Reina "of Talavera de la Reina". This is a locative surname based upon a town in central Spain on the north bank of the Tagus River. Alfonso XI gave it to his Queen, Maria of Portuagal, whense "de la Reina" (of the queen). The submitter documents this place from the Encyclopedia Britannica.

According to the Britannica article, the Moors were removed from Talavera in 1082, long before the name was changed to de la Reina in the days of Alfonso XI. This makes the combination of name and locative seem unlikely. Furthermore, we are uncertain that a locative from this town would include the full name.

Name returned for presumption.


Angels, Barony of

Catherine le Guste. New name.

[Name] Submitted as Catherine the Just. The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for an unspecified language/culture (presumably English). She will accept minor but not major changes.

Catherine is found in Withycombe, p. 186. It one of the four header spellings.

le Guste is from Reaney and Wilson, (p. 258 s.n. Just); "a rare name. The only evidence noted for a meaning 'the just' is Thomas le Guste 1327 SRSo." We have changed the spelling of the byname to match the documentation and satisfy her request for an authentic name.

This is clear of Katherine la Juste de la Mer (registered 4/92 via Caid) with the removal of the second byname. We confirmed that these are not the same person.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

Augustine von Freiburg. New change of device. Per chevron gules and checky argent and sable, a cross formy fitchy at the foot in chief two card piques Or.

[Name] This name was registered 11/00.

[Device] The submitter wishes to keep his old device, Per chevron gules and checky sable and argent, a compass star and in chief two card-piques Or (registered 11/00) as a badge.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Ketill rauđskeggr. New name and device. Azure, three dragons Or and on a chief argent a heart purpure.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name appropriate for "10th Century Viking" though he does not request changes to make the name authentic. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture.

Ketill is found in Gierr Bassi p.12 as a masculine given name.

rauđskeggr is a byname found in Gierr Bassi p.26 glossed as "red beard".

Name and device are approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Randvér brotamaðr. New name and device. Azure, two axes in saltire Or and on a base argent a dragon dormant gules.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made, he cares most about the meaning "breaker."

Randvér is found in Gierr Bassi p.14.

brotamaðr is found in Gierr Bassi as a byname on p.20, meaning "breaker, damage causer ".

Name and device Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Signý Þorskafjarðargyðja. New name.

[Name] Submitted as Signý Þorskafjarðargoða. The submitter will accept minor but not major changes. No other boxes are marked.

Signý is found in Gierr Bassi p.14 as a feminine name.

Þorskafjarðargyðja is a feminized byname meaning "Codfish-Fjord-Priestess" constructed from elements in Gierr Bassi. Þorskafjarðargoði is found on p.29 glossed as "Codfish-Fjord-Priest". On p.22, one can find gyðja "gyðja, priestess" and goði "priest". We have changed the spelling of the byname to match the documentation.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Cymme filia Merlin. Resub Kingdom name and new device. Argent, a merlin migrant purpure marked argent in chief three fir trees vert.

[Name] Submitted as Kymme filia Merlin. In December 2003 Crescent returned her earlier submission, "Kima de Royl" for presumption.

The submitter will accept minor but not major changes. No other boxes are checked.

Cymme is a feminine given name found in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames", KWHS Proceedings from Trimaris, AS XXIX. In R&W, the original source, this is found on p.102 under Kemma, dated to 1276 as a surname. "Cymme (f) perhaps a pet-form of OE Cyneburh (f)". The documentation seems to support the spelling Cymme as a given name.

filia Merlin - daughter of Merlin. Merlin is a surname found in R&W, (p.306, sn Merlin). This is found as a patronymic, Ralph filius Merlin, 1202 FFL. Ofr Merlin, from Welsh Myrddhin.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Sadb ingen Abner uí Lorccáin. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name appropriate for 11th Century Irish, though she does not request changes to make the name authentic. She will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made she cares most about the language/culture. The submitter prefers the patronymic (ingen Abner) included in some form, but is willing to drop the element if required for registerability.

Sadb is a feminine name found in O'Corrain and Maguire (p.160, header spelling) "Brian Boru had a daughter Sabd who died in 1048."

ingen Abner is daughter of Abner. The submitter notes that Abner is a masculine Hebrew name found in Withycombe, (p.1-2, s.n. Abner). This name in an otherwise Irish name could be problematical, except thankfully, in OCM (pg. 12 s.n. Abner) is found, "The name of the biblical Abner, cousin of Saul and commander of his army. It was borrowed by such early Irish clerics as Abner, Abbot of Emly (†760) and Abner abbot of Killeigh (†827), but it never became popular."

ui Lorccáin is decendant of Lorccán, a masculine name found in OCM (pp.124-125, s.n. Lorccán). "Very common name in early Medieval Ireland." Woulfe, (p.191 Lorcán) gives the genitive as "-áin". The "L" does not lenite.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Stiamna Gruamdha. New name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 11th Century. He will accept minor but not major changes and if changes must be made, he cares most about the language/culture.

Stiamna is found in O'Corrin and Maguire (p.167, s.n. Staimna). A borrowing of the biblical "Stephen" (13th C).

Gruamdha A byname meaning "grumpy" or "gloomy". Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Names in Irish Annals: Descriptive Bynames: Gruamdha", a St. Gabriel's Report (www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Gruamdha.shtml) suggest the Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c1200-c1700) nominative form: Gruamdha, and notes Dbuhgeann Gruamdha 'o Duibgeaitheamhan dtd 1440.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lyondemere, Barony of

Catelin Avenel. New name and device. Per bend gules and argent, a natural tiger argent marked sable and an ivy vine bendwise gules.

[Name] The submitter will accept minor but not major changes. No other boxes are checked.

Catelin is a feminine given name found under "Catlin" in R&W (p.87, s.n. Catlin, Catling, Cattlin); "OFr Caterine, Cateline, the French form of Catharine, introduced into England in the 12th century when it became popular, usually in the form Catelin(e)"

Avenel. A surname found in Black, (p.39. s.n. Avenel) "Robertus Avenel who witnessed charters in the reigns of David I, Malcom IV, and William the Lion. Dtd to 1175"

[Armory] We are concerned that any blazon that we can come up with does not adequately describe the vine in this emblazon, especially the triple loop which is important to the submitter. It must be returned for this reason (RfS VII.7.b). This was conflict checked and no conflict was found at this time.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


Order of Precedence Notes

None.


Bibliography

Ahmed, Salahuddin, "A Dictionary of Muslim Names"

Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók", http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html.

Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "Viking bynames found in the Landnamabok", http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/vikbynames.html.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989. [Black]

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1987. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet. [Dauzat]

Dauzat, Albert and Rostaing, Ch. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France. 2nd ed. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1963. Guénégaud, Paris.

Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. 4th ed. Oxford University, New York, 1960. [Ekwall]

"Encyclopedia Britannica".

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977. [Geirr Bassi]

Harris, Karen, "Masculine Given Names Found in the 1523 Subsidy Roll for York and Ainsty, England (sorted alphabetically)" by Karen Larsdatter (sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york16/given-masc-alpha.htm)

Harris, Karen, "Surnames in 15th Century York" by Karen Larsdatter (sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york15/surnames-alphabetical.htm).

Landnamabok (http:// www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm)

Northvegr.org translation of the Landnamabok (http://www.northvegr.org/lore/landnamabok/021.php)

Cleasby, Richard and Guðbrandr Viogfusson, "An Icelandic-English Dictionary" (http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/oi_cleasbyvigfusson_about.html)

Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals: Descriptive Bynames: Gruamdha", a St. Gabriel's Report (www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Gruamdha.shtml)

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990. [OCM]

"Online Catasto Project, The" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/first_names.html) and (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/family_names.html)

Peterson, Lena, "Nordskt runnamlnslexikon"

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995. [R&W]

Talan Gwynek "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 3rd ed. 1977. [Withycombe]


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