Warning: include(/home/caidadmin/sca-caid.org/inc/subheader.inc): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/heraldsadmin/heralds.sca-caid.org/minutes/2005/min0506.php on line 9

Warning: include(): Failed opening '/home/caidadmin/sca-caid.org/inc/subheader.inc' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/php5/lib/pear') in /home/heraldsadmin/heralds.sca-caid.org/minutes/2005/min0506.php on line 9

Warning: include(/home/caidadmin/sca-caid.org/inc/left.inc): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/heraldsadmin/heralds.sca-caid.org/minutes/2005/min0506.php on line 12

Warning: include(): Failed opening '/home/caidadmin/sca-caid.org/inc/left.inc' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/local/lib/php:/usr/local/php5/lib/pear') in /home/heraldsadmin/heralds.sca-caid.org/minutes/2005/min0506.php on line 12

Minutes of the June 26, 2005 meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Dec 05 LoAR]

Meeting commenced at 11:30 AM.

In attendance were: Lachlan Crescent, Illuminada Silver Trumpet, Su Battlement, Selene Aurum, Balthazar Seraph, Kean Trident, Hrorek Chevron, Santin Gold Forest, Vivienne de Lemperiere, and Jeanne Marie Wreath.

This was the first meeting of Lachlan Crescent. The final meeting at the home of Jeanne Marie Wreath will be July 10. Subsequent meetings will be at Lachlan's home in Torrance. The schedule for the rest of the year: July 10th, August 7th, September 11th, October 2nd, November 6th, and December 4th.

A recent change in kingdom law removes the requirements for participants in Crown lists to have a name and device registered or in submission.

February and March 2005 LoAR were reviewed.

Approved submissions will be forwarded to Laurel on the August 25, 2005 Letter of Intent



Altavia, Barony of

Ingilborg Sigmundardottir. New Household Name. House Strongbow.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered in 08/01. The submitter will allow any changes and if changes must be made, she is most concerned about the meaning: strongbow.

Strongbow is a surname found in R&W (s.n. Strongbow, p.431) with Simon Strongbow dated 1395.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Angels, Barony of the

Ulrich Einarsson. New name and device. Sable, a saltire Or, overall a phoenix gules, its flames pierced by a sword palewise inverted argent.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. Ulrich is the son of Einar aus Enwelt (registered 10/79).

Ulrich is found in Hans Bahlow's, Middle High German Name Book from Silesian Sources. There are nine names dated between c.1250-1369. Included is a printout from the medieval name project. www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/bahlow/bahlowMasc.html. This article is also on sca.org at www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.html, and so copies need not be forwarded.

Einarr is found in The Old Norse Name by Geirr Bassi Haraldsson (p.9). There are 28 instances of the name. Included is a printout compiled by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Sara L. Friedemann), www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html. The patronymic form Einarsson is correctly formed according to Geirr Bassi p.17 (Geirr->Geirsson is the closest example). Combining Norse and German (Middle High German) elements has been ruled one step from period practice (08/03 LoAR, Tyrfingr von Wolfsberg).

[Armory] A charge that is overall must have good contrast with the field, not the charge it overlies. Thus, since the gules phoenix has poor contrast with the sable field, this must be returned (RfS VIII.2.b.i). Additionally, the relationship between the phoenix and the sword is difficult to blazon. It is not held in the bird's talons (if a phoenix has such) but appears to be thrust through the flames. Blazons must be reproducible from their emblazon (RfS VII.7.b). Furthermore, the charges are barely overall, which may also be grounds for return.

Name is approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for non-period style.


Veronique de la Rose. New name and device. Per bend sinister purpure and vert, two frogs sejant contourny argent.[Name] The submitter desires a feminine name and will allow no changes.

Veronique is a feminine name found in Dauzat p. 592, apparently undated - "N. de bapt. Fem: forme sav. de Veronica qui, suivant la l'egende, essuya le visage du Christ au calvaire".

de la Rose is found in Reaney & Wilson p. 383 - Rose, Royce Royse: .. "Robert de la Rose 1242 Fees (0)"

[Armory] This inspired some discussion over whether these frogs are sejant or statant. Most attending the meeting thought it more closely resembled sejant.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

Calafia, Barony of. Transfer of order name (Order of the Golden Ram) to Dreiburgen, Barony of.

[Name] Calafia, Barony of was registered "at some point". Dreiburgen, Barony of was registered 10/76 . The order name was registered to Calafia, Barony of 04/81. This order has always belonged to Dreiburgen, and has been used exclusively by Dreiburgen. As we are unable to discover how it ended up registered to Calafia it was determined that the easiest way to make the correction is to transfer the name to Dreiburgen. The transfer letter is signed by the baron, baroness, seneschal, and herald. A letter of acceptance is included from Dreiburgen.

Transfer approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Cormac O'Duinn.. New name and device. Per bend sinister gules and sable, a bend sinister scaly between two annulets argent.

[Name] Submitted as Cormac O'Duinne. The submitter desires a masculine name and is most concerned about the sound. He will accept minor but not accept major changes to the name.

Cormac is a masculine name in OCM (p. 60 s.n. Cormacc: Cormac). "Cormac is perhaps the tenth most popular name in Early Ireland." Black (p.171, s.n. Cormack) has this to say, "is an old Gaelic Personal name occurring in early Celtic corb-mac : chariot lad or charioteer. Modern Cormack may be the shortened form of Mac Cormaic or Mac Cormaig, son of Cormac.

O'Duinne is found in MacLysaght (p.93, s.n. (O) Dunn(e)). MacLysaght notes, "O'Duinn or O'Doinn usually spelt with the final E. One of the most numerous names in the midland counties. Formerly called O'Doyne (lords of Iregan)" Black also notes, (p.635 s.n. O'Duibhne) "The o'duibhnes were the ancestors of the Campbells as attested by an early charter. Diarmuid O'Duinn and Diarmaid O'Duibhne are used indifferently."

The submitted spelling does not appear in the submitter's documentation. We have changed this to the closest spelling from MacLysaght.

[Device] The scales on the bend do not match the depictions of either scaly or papellony in the PicDict or other heraldic texts. As drawn, it is not clearly identifiable (RfS VII.7.b). We are returning this for redraw. On the resubmission, the submitter is advised to draw the annulets larger and of more similar size to each other.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


Gwilym ap Riccard. New name and device. Vert, a Jerusalem cross Or and a chief embattled argent.

[Name] The submitter desires a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the meaning: "William, son of Richard".

Gwilym is found in Morgan & Morgan (p. 112 s.n. Gwilym) with the note, "One may add that Bartrum 1350-1415 has seven pages of Gwilym, pp. 687-92."

Riccard is found in Morgan & Morgan, (p. 186 s.n. Richard) with the following note, "Riccard ap Edward XLIV.46.16cent."

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gwenhwyvar verch Owein. Resub Kingdom device. Per pale vert and purpure, a squirrel rampant and in base a crescent Or.

[Name] This name was submitted on Caid's June 24, 2005 Letter of Intent.

[Armory] This device was inadvertently returned 04/05 for conflict with Alasdair MacEogan (02/97), (Fieldless) A squirrel sejant erect Or. These designs are clear of each other. There is one CD via X.4.a.iii for adding the field and an additional CD via X.4.b for adding the secondary charge.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Zora Ravenshaw. New Name.

[Name] The submitter does not care about the gender of the name. She allows all changes, and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Zora is found in Wickenden 3rd edition (s.n. Zora, p. 425). It is a masculine given name, a diminutive of Lazar'. Zora is dated as a surname to 1558 (s.n. Lazar', p. 182).

Ravenshaw is found in R&W (s.n. Ravenshaw, p. 373) and is dated in this spelling to 1606.

Russian-English names are one step from period practice (q.v. Ladislaus de Brody, 07/00).

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Saint Artemas, College of (Calafia)

Jaïs de Lannion. New name.

[Name] The submitter desires a masculine name. He will not accept major changes, and if changes must be made, he cares most about the sound, and the language (French).

Jaïs is in Dauzat (p.339 s.n. Jaïs (var. Jais)), apparently undated, "N. Israelite d'Algerie: fracisation de Yaïch (arabe, vivant)"

Lannion can be found in Columbia Gazetteer of the World, Vol. 2, (pg. 1684): "town has many 15th-16th century houses and a 12th-15th century church build by Templars." The submitter had access to the volume and an edition that the college does not own We are including a copy provided by the submitter via fax.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Darach, Shire of

Andreas Sabas Doukas von Leiningen. New name and device. Per pale sable and gules, two horses combattant and in chief three crosses moline argent.

[Name] Submitted as Andreas Sabas Doukas Von Leiningen. The submitter is interested in masculine name authentic for "11th-14th Century Byzantine with Southern Germanic and Carpatho-Rusyan influences." He permits minor but not major changes to the name, and if changes must be made, he cares more about the language/culture, and the sound.

Andreas is documented in and around 1401 as a given name in the Byzantine Empire. The submitter cites "The Doukai" by Demetrios Polemis, but provided no photocopies; fortunately, he also cited "Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era" on the Laurel name website (www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/introduction.html). In this article, Andreas is dated to 1401.

Sabas is documented in the same article as a Monastic name in use throughout the Byzantine Empire.

Doukas is documented in the same article in use as early as 1020. The "Historical Overview" section of the article states, "found on a 15th century icon: John Doukas Angelos Palaiologos Raoul Laskaris Tornikes Philanthropenos Asanes." "When not the proper surname it represents that one or more of the parents were Doukai."

Von Leiningen, "of Leiningen." The submitter cites a website, www.ccel.org/s/schaff/history/5_ch07.htm for documentation. . It mentions count Emich of Leiningen, active in 1096. "Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia" also lists "Count Emich of Leiningen (also spelled Leningen) (d. 1117) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the 'German Crusade' in 1096." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emich_of_Leiningen). The "Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Codex Manesse)" includes one Friedrich II. von Leiningen (1201-1237). The spelling in the original source appears to be "Liningen" (http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/sammlung2/cpg/cpg848.xml?docname=cpg848&pageid=PAGE0047).

The "von" in the surname should be lowercase. We have made this change.

There is likely a step from period practice for combining Byzantine and German, if that combination is registerable at all (RfS III.1). There is no previous precedent on this combination.

According to "Personal Names of the Aristocracy..." it does appear that this name is reasonably constructed. There is support for a four-element name in Byzantine Greek names ("In the late centuries of the empire, name dropping had taken on strong significance, and the panoply of family names one might carry could be staggering." - "late centuries" here being ~11th-15th Centuries). It also speaks of taking names from places encountered on campaign, though these are usually from Asia Minor.

As early as the 8th century, however, family names began to reappear among the aristocracy. By the 9th century there were a few great families, and by the 11th century family names were again pervasive. The early family names from this era are those found among the military aristocracy, and usually are derived from place names in Asia Minor (Asia Minor being the bread basket of the empire's military man power by then), such as Komenos (from the village of Komne). Names found among the civil aristocracy are derived from trade professions (Pantechnes - an artist's assistant), districts within Constantinople (Akropolites - 'from the Acropolis') , provincial towns (Choniates), and monasteries (Manouelites). Among commoners, family names are found which derive from crafts (Chalkeus - "smith" and Raptes - "tailor"), but also some aristocratic names are found, such as Komnenos or Synadenos - possibly reflecting links of dependancy.

While we are concerned about the lingual mix, we are forwarding this for consideration of the College of Arms.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Dreiburgen, Barony of

Dreiburgen, Barony of. Acceptance of order name (Order of the Golden Ram) from Calafia, Barony of.

[Name] Dreibrgen, Barony of was registered 10/76. Calafia, Barony of was registered at some point. The order name was registered to Calafia, Barony of 04/81. This order has always belonged to Dreiburgen, and has been used exclusively by Dreiburgen. As we are unable to discover how it ended up registered to Calafia it was determined that the easiest way to make the correction is to transfer the name to Dreiburgen. The acceptance letter is signed by the baron and baroness, seneschal, and herald. A letter of transfer is included from Calafia.

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Betsabea da Venezia. New name.

[Name] The submitter indicated no preferences.

Betsabea is found on p. 90 of De Felice, Nomi, where it is undated:

Disperso nel Nord ma attestato anche nell'Aquilano, e un nome prevalentemente israeictico che nell'Antico Testamento ha la moglie di David e madre de Salomone, in ebracio Bat- sheba' (forse 'la rigogliosa'), grecizzato in Bethsabee e latinizzato in Bethsabee

da Venezia is found on p. 259 of De Felice, Cognomi as used throughout Italy - in northern and central Italian dialects, the correct preposition is <da>, not <di> (<di> was used in patronymic bynames. As <Venezia> is the Italian name for <Venice>, <da Venezia> should be fine. <Venezia> is found in "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" in the list of placenames found in their data: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/ORIGIN.html and also at www.s-gabriel.org/763.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Colette Sarrasin de Montpellier. New name and device. Purpure, semi of escallops inverted and flaunches argent each charged with a fleurs-de-lis purpure.

[Name] Submitted as Colette Sarrasin de Montpelier. The submitter has indicated no preferences.

Colette is found in S. Gabriel report 2479 (www.s-gabriel.org/2479). The report claims the name is from Picardy 14th-15th Centuries. The reference is from:

Morlet, Marie-Therese, _Etude d'anthroponymie picarde, les noms de personne en Haute Picardie aux XIIIe, XIVe, XVe siecles_ (Amiens, Musee de Picardie, 1967).

Sarrasin is found in Dauzat (s.n. Serazin, p. 514). A sobriquet, apparently undated..

de Montpelier is found in S. Gabriel report 1204 (www.s-gabriel.org/1204) it appears that the St. Gabriel report has misspelled the citation from Dauzat which has the name spelled "Montellier". This can be found on p.440 under Mont. We have changed the spelling to match the documentation from Dauzat .

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Dametta Sweet. New name and device. Azure, a spider and on a chief argent three roses proper.

[Name] The submitter does not care about the gender of the name. She allows all changes, and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Dametta is found in R&W (s.n. Damet, p. 124) as an Old French feminine personal name of unknown origins. The submitted spelling is dated to 1279.

Sweet is found in R&W (s.n. Sweet, p. 436). It is undated in the submitted spelling. Dated spellings include Suet, Suot 1066, Adam Swet 1211, William le Swete 1327. Header spellings in Reaney and Wilson are usually acceptable.

Name and Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Damiano Drago da Gorgonzola. Kingdom resub name.

[Name] This was mistakenly returned at the 05/05 meeting. The discussion is repeated here.

Submitted as Damiano Drago di Gorgonzola. The submitter is interested in masculine name. He allows all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the language/culture (presumably, Italian). The submitter specifically allows dropping 'da Gorgonzola' if necessary for registration.

Damiano is found in De Felici, Nomi (s.n. Damiàno, p. 121). The accent marks in de Felice are for pronunciation only. Several Saints Damiano are mentioned.

Drago is found in De Felici, Cogomi (s.n. Drago, p. 116), where it appears to be undated though based on a medieval form: "Ha alla base nome e soprannomi già medioevali formati da drago e dragóne...".

Gorgonzola is an Italian place name. CLG indicates that it is 11 miles from Milan. 1200 AD. The page for the Consortium for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese (http://www.gorgonzola.com/eng/history.htm), "Gorgonzola has very old origins, although, like many other traditional food products, it has no official birth certificate but many hypothetical and legendary ones. Some claim that gorgonzola was first made in the town of the same name situated just outside Milan, in the year of grace 879." The official website of the town does not include a history section. We believe that the documentation is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt.

The particle used with Italian locatives is da not di; we have made the necessary change.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel


Drogo Norden. New name and device. Sable, an eagle displayed between three Latin crosses within a bordure Or.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 9th century Frank/German. He will accept minor but not major changes, and if the name must be changed he cares most about the language/culture.

Drogo is documented from www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/einhard.html, Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne (part of the Medieval Sourcebook). This is a translation by Samuel Epes Turner (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880). Drogo is mention chapter 18, Private Life. The 09/04 LoAR (Drogo del Forge, A-Ealdormere) notes "Drogo is a name of Frankish or Germanic origin. There is a Bishop Drogo of Metz, contemporary with Charlemagne...".

Norden is found in Bahlow/Gentry 2nd ed. (s.n. Norden, p. 349). The entry indicates this is a place name in E. Frisia; it is undated.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


James of Wiverneweald. Kingdom resub badge. (Fieldless) On an estoile per pale gules and sable an oak leaf argent.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 5/98.

[Armory] The submitter's previous badge, (Fieldless) An estoile gules, was returned 07/03 for conflict. Before that (Fieldless) An ermine spot sable was returned by Crescent in 08/01 for redraw. As this is past the defined period for a timely resubmission, the submitter has paid for this resubmission.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Santin Westmerland of Ravenstonedale. Laurel resub. household name. Clann Lochlainn Fionn.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 04/02. Her previous submission Clann Lochlainn Mor was returned by Laurel 01/05 with the comments:

This is presumptous of the real-world Clann Lochlainn. While the descriptive element Mor clears the two names of conflict, the founder of the real-world Clann Lochlainn is, according to the submitter's documentation, Lochlainn Mor. Therefore, this claim is identical to the one of the real-world clan. If the submitter wishes to remove the presumption, we suggest choosing a different descriptive byname. Clann Lochlain Dubh, for example, would not be presumptous.

She will accept any changes to the household name, and if the name must be changed she cares more about the meaning. The household name is to be associated with the badge, Per bend sinister sable and Or, a thistle Or and a rose gules barbed vert, registered as a joint badge for Conchobar mac Lochlainn (01/05) and Santine Westmerland of Ravenstonedale (01/05).

The submitter documents the name from a booklet that accompanies a clan map of Scotland (www.gwp.enta.net/scothist.htm#clans) where Lachlan Mor is dated to the 13th century. Sharon Krossa's article "Medieval Gaelic Clan, Household and Other Group Names" (www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/households.shtml) notes that "Most commonly the name use for the eponymous clann ancestor was his given name only, but sometimes his simple patronymic byname only or his given name plus descriptive byname would be used." She includes the example "Clann Eoin Duibh, a late medieval Scottish Gaelic clan named after a man with the given name plus descriptive byname Eoin Dubh." The author also notes "After clann the clan ancestor's name is lenited unless the name starts with D, T, L, or R."

Lochlainn is found in OCM (p. 123) meaning probably "Viking", and dates to the Early Middle Ages.

Fionn is found in "Index of Names in Irish Annals: Masculine Descriptive Bynames" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan (www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames), where it is glossed as "fair".

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Tegan verch Morgant. Laurel resub. device. Per chevron azure and vert, a pawprint Or and in chief three increscents argent.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 03/04.

[Armory] Her previous submission, Per chevron azure and vert, a pawprint Or and in sinister chief in fess an increscent a roundel and a decrescent argent, was returned by Laurel 03/05 for being two steps from period practice. Changing the secondaries to all increscents and centering them removes one of the weirdnesses.

While the pawprint is still a weirdness, this leaves only one step from period practice and can be forwarded.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Heatherwyne, Shire of

Eve Gray. New Name.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name appropriate for an English-French name for 1500, though she does not request changes to make the name authentic. She allows all changes and if the name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture ("1500 English-French").

Eve is found in Withycombe (s.n. Eva, Eve, p. 112); it is dated in the submitted spelling to 1284 and 1486.

Gray is found in Bardsley (s.n. Gray, pp. 333-334) with Katherine Grey dated to 1523. Forms from 1273 include Robert de Gray and John le Gray. R&W (s.n. Gray, Grey, Le Grey, p. 203) date Sewyn le Gray to 1296 and Henry de Gray to 1196. The switch between Grey/Gray is illustrated in R&W with Philip le Grey dated to 1296 (cf Sewyn le Gray, with the same date).

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lucia Zaffarana. New device. Or, two hummingbirds rising addorsed gules, a chief embattled vert.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 07/03.

[Armory] The hummingbirds would benefit from a bit of internal detailing. As drawn, they are still identifiable. When asked, everyone in the room could correctly identify them as hummingbirds.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Lyondemere, Barony of

Elizaveta Arievna Lebedeva. New name and device. Gules, a winged panther contourny argent incensed Or.

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will allow minor but not major changes, and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Elizaveta is found as a feminine given name in in Wickenden 1st ed. p. 58 where Elisaveta is listed as the Russian form of Eliabeth. The submitted name is a variant spelling. The submitted spelling is not listed in our edition. The spelling variants given: Elizabeth, Elyzabeth, Elzbeta, El'zhbeta, cause us to think this is a valid variant.

Arievna is a patronymic; Wickenden 3rd ed. (p. 11) cites Arii as a masculine given name dated to the 4th century. While this would leave us with a temporal incompatibility, we note that Erii is dated to 1444 on pg. 84. The following instances of shift from /E/ to /A/ suggest that Arievna is an acceptable spelling variant: Aleshka as a vaiant of Aleksei p 5, Alzbeta as variant of Elizaveta p. 6, and Astafii as a variant of Evstafii p. 13. Page xxv cites -evna as the feminine patronymic construction, for example: Aleksei becomes Alekseevna.

Lebedeva is a descriptive byname. Wickenden 3rd ed p. 183 cites Lebedev as a byname dated to 1495; p. xxv cites -eva as a feminine patronymic construction and the use of patronymic forms with adjectival bynames.

[Armory] This conflicts with Windmaster's Hill, Order of the Tempest, Gules, a winged domestic cat salient and maintaining a sword palewise argent. (registered 04/90). There is a CD for the difference between a panther and a domestic cat (Catte MacGuffee, 03/03, A-Meridies), so presumably there is still a difference when both beasts are winged. There is not, however, the necessary substantial difference to clear the design via X.2. There is no difference for the removal of the maintained sword or addition of the flames.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for conflict.


Elizaveta Arievna Lebedeva. New badge. (Fieldless) On a wing gules a mullet of six points elongated to base argent.

[Name] The submitter's name is submitted above.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.



Order of Precedence Notes

Andreas Sabas Doukas von Leiningen received his AoA in the West, June 2nd, AS 37.

Veronique de la Rose is listed in the OP as Veronique la Fleur.


Bibliography

Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók", http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html.

Bahlow, Hans. Dictionary of German Names. translated by Edda Gentry, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 1967, English version: 1993. [Bahlow/Gentry]

Bahlow, Hans. Dictionary of German Names. translated by Edda Gentry, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 1967, English version: 2002. [Bahlow/Gentry 2nd]

Bahlow, Hans, "Middle High German Name Book" from Silesian Sources, www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/bahlow/bahlowMasc.html

Bardsley, Charles. W. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. London, 1901; Ramsbury, Wiltshire: Heraldry Today. Reprint ed.: 1988

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989. [Black]

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme and Akagawa Yoshio. A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry as Used in the Society for Creative Anachronism. privately published, 1988. [PicDic]

"Columbia Gazetteer of the World, Volumn 2"

"Consortium for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese", www.gorgonzola.com/eng/historydefault.htm

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1987. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet. [Dauzat]

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986. [Cognomi]

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986. [Nomi]

Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne, translation by Samuel Epes Turner (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880), www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/einhard.html

"Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532", www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/ORIGIN.html, and also at www.s-gabriel.org/763

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977. [Geirr Bassi]

Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Codex Manesse), digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/sammlung2/cpg/cpg848.xml?docname=cpg848&pageid=PAGE0047.

Krossa, Sharon. "Medieval Gaelic Clan, Household, and Other Group Names" (updated 23 Aug 2002), http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/households.shtml

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. 6th ed. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1985. [MacLysaght]

Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Names in Irish Annals: Masculine Descriptive Bynames", www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames

Morgan, T.J. and Morgan, Prys, Welsh Surnames. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985 [Morgan & Morgan]

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990. [OCM]

"Personal names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era", www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/introduction.html

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995. [R&W]

Wickenden of Thanet, Paul. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Mountain View, CA: SCA Inc. - Free Trumpet Press West, 3rd ed. 2001.

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 3rd ed. 1977. [Withycombe]


Return to the Minutes list
Return to the main Herald's page
Return to the Caid home page

Comments, suggestions or updates regarding this site should be sent to the .

Standard Disclaimer