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Minutes of the 11 JULY 2004 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Dec 04 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

In attendance were: Jeanne Marie Crescent, Lachlan Dolphin, Islyle le Gannoker de Gavain, Selene Aurum, Thomas Brownwell, Rotheric Kynith, Cormac Silver Trumpet, Vivienne de Lampérière, Umberto Gold Forest, Grimr inn harfagri, Una Bellows, Su Battlement, Catherine Aimerii de Winter and Dietmar von Straubing.

The next heraldry meetings will be: August 8th, September 12th, October 24th, November 21st, and December 12th. There will be a road show at Collegium on September 26th. If you can spend some time at that meeting, it will be appreciated. Quarterly reports are now over-due; if you haven't turned in your report please do so as soon as possible.

A new tabard has been donated to the kingdom. The tabard includes the following identification:

Inception by Astra Christiana Benedict

Construction by Cassandre Loustaunau

Assistance by Lachlan of Cromarty

Contributors Include: Rouge Anne Marie Du Maurier, Gillian of Lynhaven, Madelyn Alcott, Mary Isabelle of Heatherstone, and Su of the Silver Horn.

Crescent thanks everyone for their hard work in creating this beautiful tabard. It is appreciated.

Crescent read the results of the most recent Letter of Acceptance and Return (March from the new Laurel team).

The signatories on the bank account are still in the process of being updated. As she is stepping down this fall, the Kingdom Exchequer has requested that her replacement be added as a signatory rather than herself. Thus, the signatories on the account should be Martha L. Ranc, Ian McIntosh, Rose Pavlicek, and Deborah Fox. Mark Wroth is to be removed as a signatory.

Approved submissions will be forwarded to Laurel on the July 15, 2004 Letter of Intent.


Altavia, Barony of

Ainfean inghean Bheoadh - New Name and New Device:

Per bend potenty argent and azure, a rose and a dolphin naiant counterchanged

[Name] Submitted as Ainfean inghean mhic Beoadh, and changed to Ainfean inghean Bheoadh. The submitter was contacted via telephone and agreed to these changes. The submitter is interested in a feminine name. No other boxes are marked.

Ainfean is found in OCM (s.n. Ainbhen, Ainbthine:Ainbthen, p. 19) who say it is a feminine name meaning "perhaps, 'storm, violence, fury'. This name was borne by a virgin saint."

inghean mhic is a patronymic marker meaning "granddaughter of". The submitter intended instead "daughter of". We have changed the patronymic to inghean to reflect this preference.

Beoaodh is found in OCM (s.n. Béoád:Beoaodh, p. 31); a masculine name meaning "'living fire'. The principal bearer of this name was the sixth-century St Béoáed of Ardcarne." According to the rules of Gaelic grammar, the patronymic must be lenited. We have, therefore made this change (Bheoaodh).

[Armory] The submitter is recommended to draw the rose larger, to fill the space available.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Ariadne de Glevum - New Name and New Device:

Argent, a single-headed chess knight and on a chief sable a tilting lance reversed argent

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for an unspecified culture. She allows all changes and if the name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture. We assume that the submitter intends the de not to be capitalized. While she typed her name in all caps on her name form, when she wrote the name on her device form, it was not capitalized.

Ariadne is found in Withycombe (s.n. Ariande, p. 31) where she states that "The name was borne by an obscure Phrygian martyr". The submitter notes, but provides no documentation, that the name is found in several cases from the 1st-3rd century AD, and as the name of the daughter of Leo I, eastern Roman emperor (6th century AD). According to "De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors" by Hugh Elton (www.roman-emperors.org/), Ariadne is the daughter of Leo I, born before Leo became emperor in 457; she is also the mother of Leo II who became emperor in 474.

Glevum is the Roman name of Gloucester (see web page of Gloucester and District Archaeological Research Group - www.gadarg.org.uk/us.htm). Ekwall (s.n. Gloucester, p. 199) notes the spelling as Old British, undated. If necessary, the submitter is willing to go with a surname of de Glowecestre' (a spelling found in the Domesday Book according to Ekwall) if de Glevum is unacceptable.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Elric Thurstonsen of Dragons Keep - New household name: House Dragons Keep

[Name] The submitter marked no boxes and provided no documentation. He states, "Dreuganstor is a viable alternative. Prefer Dragons keep" The submitter's name was registered 09/86.

House Dragons Keep is in direct conflict with House Dragonkeep, registered to Cairbre mac Síomaigh 09/83. Please note that Dragons Keep (without the designator "House") would also be unregisterable since it would conflict with Dragon Principal Herald from the Middle as, in that case, Keep and Principal Herald are the designators and are thus not considered when determining conflict. We are returning the submitter's alternate for lack of documentation.

Household name returned for conflict.


Sárnat ingen mhic Caille - Kingdom Resub Device:

Vert, a heart between and sustained by two hands inverted Or.

[Name] The submitter's name appears on Caid's May 10th LoI. We note that the device form incorrectly lists her name as Sárnat MacNeil.

[Armory] Her previous submission (under the name Sarvar Fatima isfaheni), Argent, three hearts gules, each clasped between a pair of hands inverted sable, was returned by Crescent 07/01 for lack of a name and lack of identifiability.

Crescent notes the maxim "Difficulty in emblazon is often a sign of non-period style." This emblazon inspired a lengthy conversation on how to blazon it. The blazon we finally selected echoes a previous registration (Fieldless) A heart between and sustained by two hands inverted argent (Kira Linn of Mountain Island, 08/00 A-Atlantia).

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Sorcha inghean mhic an Ghabhann - Kingdom Resub Device:

Argent, on a hurst of pine trees vert a cat sejant guardant argent marked sable

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 03/04 (New Laurel team LoAR).

[Armory] Her previous submission, Argent, on a hurst of pine trees vert, a cat sejant guardant argent spotted sable, was returned by Crescent 02/04 for redraw as the cat could not be identified. This emblazon fixes the identifiability problem.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Willim Du - New Name

[Name] The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept all changes and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

Willim is found in Morgan & Morgan (s.n. Gwilym, p. 113), dated in this spelling to 1610.

Du is also from Morgan & Morgan (s.n. Du, Dee, p. 87), dated to 1587.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Angels, Barony of

Allan Blackharp - New Household Name (Harpers Keep) and Badge:

Per pale sable and Or, a harp and a harp reversed unstrung counterchanged.

[Name] Submitted as Harpers' Keep The submitter's name was registered 04/98. The submitter does not care about the gender of the name. No other boxes were checked. The submitter will accept any designator in place of keep if necessary; "Hall, Hold, etc.".

Harper is a surname documented from R&W (s.n. Harper,Harpor,Harpour, p. 218) with Robert the Harpur dated 1186, and Reginald le Harper dated 1275.

Keep is a SCA-compatible as noted in the precedent:

[crest and keep] The element crest falls into the same category as keep. In both cases, we do not have evidence of that element used in a formal place name in period, though we have evidence of each as a geographical element. Bardsley (p. 216 s.n. Crest) dates both Rogerus del Crest and Johannes del Crest to 1379. Bardsley (p. 441 s.n. Keep) dates William atte Kep to 18 Edw. I, Roger Kep to I Edw. III, and Richard atte Kippe to I Edw. III. Reaney & Wilson (p. 261 s.n. Keep) dates Thomas ate Kepe to 1327 and Roger de Kepe to 1332.

Keep has long been used as part of SCA branch names. The most recent registration is Crossrode Keep, Shire of (registered November 1999 via Ansteorra). This element is effectively regarded as SCA compatible as an element in an English place name. Given the forms in which it has been registered, spellings of the element Keep are registerable both as a separate element (such as Crossrode Keep), and as the final element in a compound place name (such as Northkeep). Registerable spellings include Keep and any alternate spellings which may be documented to period (including those listed above).

Similarly, there has been enough interest in the element crest, including as recently as 1999, to rule it SCA compatible in an English place name. Unlike keep, crest is not registerable as a separate element. So, Ravencrest is a registerable placename, though Ravenwood Crest, for example, is not. [Tristan Ravencrest, 11/01, A-Æthelmearc]

Given the precedent "[Kegs End] Submitted as Keg's End, Smith, English Place-Name Elements, under ende lists Sewards End. Forming a hypothetical place name in the form <surname>s + End seems therefore reasonable. We have, however, removed the apostrophe, to conform with period usage. [Briged O'Daire, 07/00, A-Atenveldt]" we have removed the apostrophe from Harpers' Keep.

We are aware of the Harper Hall of Pern fame; however, we are unsure if this rises to the level necessary for protection (c.f. Peter Parker). The submitter was consulted and wishes this sent forward as submitted for Pelican to decide on its registerability.

[Armory] This is clear of Antoine D'Aubernoun (12/90), Per bend Or and sable, two lyres counterchanged. There is a CD for changes to the field. There is a second CD for the differences in the instruments: "[a lyre vs a harp] It was the consensus of the commenting heralds and those attending the Laurel meeting that there is (and should be) a CD between a lyre and a harp. [The submission was returned for a different reason.] (Wintermist, Shire of, 7/94 p. 10)". While the use of both a strung and an unstrung harp on the same badge is unusual, given that the strings are at most the equivalent of a maintained charge, we believe that it is a registerable weirdness.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Colwyn Stagghorn - New Name and Device:

Quarterly sable and azure, on a chevron Or three stags heads erased reversed sable

[Name] If the name must be changed he cares most about the sound. No other boxes are marked. The submitter notes "Colwyn - variations in spelling & period are acceptable. Sound is primary importance."

Colwyn is found in R&W (s.n. Colvin, p. 106) where it is glossed as an old Welsh name. The examples include Coluin (1296) and Colwin (undated). They also give Colwynes (1100-1130) as a surname, showing this spelling in the genitive.

Stagg is dated to 1198 in R&W (s.n. Stagg, p. 423).

Horn is found in Ekwall (s.n. Horne, p. 229), dated to 1229.

The submitter believes that Stagghorn is a reasonable construction for an English place-name meaning "staked bend." Ekwall cites Stagge as protheme with Staggeden dated to 1183, "stakes" and -horn as a deutrotheme, Werahorne from the DB "bend". Mills also dates Stagsden (s.n. Stagsden, p.322) from the Doomsday Book, meaning "valley of stakes or boundary posts." Based on these examples, better spellings might be Stagshorne (entirely eleventh century), Staggehorne (combining twelfth and eleventh century spellings) or Staggehorn (combining twelfth century spelling with a "header spelling").

[Armory] This submission uses a non-standard escutcheon (shield) shape. In fact, it is significantly different than the one provided on a standard form. Precedent is not clear on what degree of difference between the standard shape and a submitted shape is registerable. We are forwarding this to Laurel to make a determination, though we caution submitters against using non-standard escutcheon shapes on their submissions. They may be returned for this reason.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Mirosława z Gosprzydowa - New name

[Name] The submitter is interested in a Polish, feminine name though she does not request changes to make the name more authentic. She will accept all changes and if the name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture.

Mirosława is the feminine form of Mirosław found in "Polish Given Names in Nazwiska Polakow" by Walraven van Nijmegen (Brian R. Speer) (www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/polish). Walraven states "I do have evidence, however, that those Slavic names ending in -slaw may be made feminine by changing the ending to -slawa". Please note that the 6th letter in the first name is "l-slash" {l/}.

Gosprzydowa is a locative according to the town's website (www.gosprzydowa.pl/start_eg.html) "The oldest mention about Gosprzydowa is dated at 1215" is in The History of Poland by Jan Długosz. A description of this book, including the fact that this is found at www.impub.co.uk/dlug1.html, where it states that this is a contemporary history of the half-forgotten lands between the rivers Oder and Dnieper: Byelorus, Bohemia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and the Ukraine from A.D. 965 to A.D. 1480". This was written in Latin and copies made; in 1511 it was first printed.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Calafia, Barony of

Ælina Vestr-lönd - New name and device:

Argent, a tree blasted within and conjoined to an annulet, between four roundels in cross purpure.

[Name] Submitted as Ælina Vesterlund. The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for "Saami Swedish/Finnish" language. She will accept minor but not major changes and if the name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture Sound is also important to the submitter. A note on the reverse of the form states, "Helen is my legal name. I would like a Nordic style name for Helen Westerlund. I am more concerned about the sound than spelling."

Ælina is found in "Swedish Feminine Given Names Found in SMP" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/smp/elin.html), dated to 1315.

We have also found the name Vestr-lönd, meaning "the British Isles" in "A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic" by Geir T. Zoëga. This is closer in sound to her request, though it has changed the meaning. We are also able to justify Vestr-lundr as a constructed locative. Vestr is found in "A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic" by Geir T. Zoëga, (www.ling.upenn.edu/~kurisuto/germanic/oi_zoega_about.html) meaning "the west" or "westwards". Lundr is also from the same source glossed as "clump of trees, grove." To support the construction, the submitter also supplies an excerpt from Gunnvör sílfrahárr's "Old Norse Men's Names and their Meanings" (www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm), which under Lundvarr states "The first element Lund- is related to Old Icelandic lundr, 'sacred grove'." This is closer in meaning to the submitter's request but has the additional syllable "r" added. We are changing the surname to Vestr-lönd to match the documentation and to meet the submitter's request for authenticity.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forward to Laurel.


Gaukr mjöksiglandi - Kingdom Resub Device:

Per bend gules and Or, a bird and a drakkar counterchanged

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 02/04.

[Armory] His previous submission, Per pall azure, gules, and vert, an annulet between in pall inverted Viking longship reversed, a drakkar's prow, and a wolf's head ululant ot sinister Or, was returned by Crescent 11/03 for multiple problems. This is a complete redesign.

The submitter blazoned this as a gaukr, which is Old Norse for a cuckoo. We understand the desired to use gaukr as a cant; however this emblazon is not clearly a cuckoo. We are therefore blazoning this as a generic bird. In addition, this would be the first registration of a gaukr or of a cuckoo and thus would required docuementation for the depiction of the gaukr.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gaukr mjöksiglandi - New Household Name (House Dreka-lundr) and New Badge:

(Fieldless) In fess a dragon dormant between and conjoined to two trees blasted and eradicated argent

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 02/04. The submitter accepts all changes and if the name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning "sacred grove of the dragon".

dreka is found in A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic by Geir T. Zoëga meaning "of a dragon". This differs from dreki ("dragon").

lundr is found in the same source as meaning "clump of trees". , The submitter also supplies an excerpt from Gunnvör sílfrahárr's "Old Norse Men's Names and their Meanings" (www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm), which under Lundvarr states "The first element Lund- is related to Old Icelandic lundr, 'sacred grove'."

This does not seem to follow the forms of household names we have from Old Icelandic. In recent past, household names have been registered based upon Old Norse farm names, as an example. Here, we do not have documentation that household names would have been formed in this fashion in Old Norse.

[Armory] Conflict with Wyndylyn Leand na Doinneann for Freehold Silverwood (04/98), Vert, a hurst of blasted trees argent. There is a CD for fieldlessness but there is not another CD for changes to one of a group of three primary charges. We also note that, if this were not returned for conflict, it still might not be registerable due to the unblazonable posture of the dragon. We did not complete the conflict checks. Other conflicts might exist.

Household name returned for lack of documentation. Badge returned for conflict.


Darach, Shire of

Brian Mor O'Brian - Resub Kingdom Badge:

(Fieldless) An oak leaf palewise ermine.

[Name] The name was registered 09/02.

[Armory] The badge (with the same blazon) was previously returned in Kingdom for being drawn so that the leaf was neither identifiably palewise nor bendwise. It's been redrawn to be identifiably palewise.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Mayken de Houtman - New Name and Device:

Argent, a fess nebuly azure and in chief a raven displayed sable.

[Name] If the name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture (Dutch). No other boxes are marked.

Mayken is found under Maria in Woordenboek van Voornamen by van der Schaar (1992, Het Spectrum B.V., Utrech), pp. 258-9; it is undated. The submitter also provided documentation for Maykin which shows it is found as a feminine given name in "Flemish Names from Bruges" by Luana de Grood (www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/given-list.html). The submitter claims that Mayken is a variant of Maykin, which seems a reasonable claim based on the comparison of the two sources.

de Houtman is a period Dutch surname. The online Encyclopedia Britannica (www.britannica.com) cites Cornelis de Houtman and Frederik de Houtman, born c.1540 and 1571 respectively: "brothers who navigated and led the first Dutch trading expedition to the East Indies...".

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Mercy of the Hands - Kingdom Resub Name

[Name] The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes. Her previous submission, Mercy of the Healing Hands, was returned by Crescent 03/98 for lack of documentation to support the general form of the surname. The submitter was contacted after the meeting and states that she prefers "Hands" to "Hand". She wishes a name as close as possible to "Mercy of the Healing Hands".

Mercy is the submitter's legal given name as it appears on her California driver's license. A copy of the license is not provided, because the submission was taken at an event consult table where there was no photocopy machine available. Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Crescent and Miguel Esteban Franco de los Rios both signed the form indicating that they witnessed the submitter's information.

of the Hands is a constructed locative based on an inn sign. In addition, R&W (s.n. Hand, Hands, p. 215) include the examples Johannes cum manu dated c1200 and Walter Handes dated 1332. They also note "The surname may also refer to some peculiarity of the hand or to skill in its use." There are many individuals in Caid, including Crescent, who will attest to Mercy's skilled use of her hands.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Dun Or, Barony of

William de Grey - New Badge:

(Fieldless) A natural sea turtle per pale Or and vert

[Name] The submitter's name appears on Caid's May 10th LoI.

[Armory] He requests that the blazon be retained as a natural sea turtle.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Grimr inn harfagri - New Name

[Name] The submitter requests authenticity for Norse. He will accept all changes and if the name must be changed he cares most about the language/culture. The submitter was present at the meeting and stated that he would prefer not to use accents in the name.

Grimr is found as masculine given name on p. 10 of Geirr Bassi.

inn harfagri is found as a byname meaning "fair-hair" on p. 22 of Geirr Bassi.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Su of the Silverhorn - New Badge:

(Fieldless) A drinking horn palewise argent enfiling a pearled coronet Or.

[Name] The submitter's name was registered 03/78.

[Armory] Despite the confusing entries in the Armorial, this will be Su's fourth piece of registered armory. She was granted a court barony on 3/31/84 via Caid.

This is clear of Rowen O'Ceallachain of Muscraidhe (04/00), (Fieldless) A torch argent enflamed gules enfiled of a pearled coronet Or pearled vert, with one CD for fieldlessness and one CD for change of type of half the primary charges.

We note the following precedent:

[(Fieldless) An anchor fouled of its cable argent enfiling a coronet bendwise sinister Or pearled argent] There is a high degree of overlap between the coronet and the anchor and its cable. This is not acceptable style for overall charges on a fieldless badge for reasons of identifiability and non-period style. The same stylistic constraints which apply to charges surmounted by overall charges also apply to charges enfiled by other charges. [The badge was also returned for other stylistic problems] (William the Mariner, 04/03, R-An Tir)

By this standard, this must be judged according to the requirements for overall charges on fieldless badges set forth in the cover letter of 11/92 LoAR:

I've therefore decided not to implement a comprehensive ban on fieldless badges with overall charges. I will be returning cases where the underlying charge is rendered unidentifiable, per Rule VIII.3; this will include the most egregious cases of overall charges (e.g. A pheon surmounted by a hawk's head). But this can be done as an interpretation of the current Rules, and needn't involve a new policy. In cases where identifiability is maintained -- where one of the charges is a long, slender object, and the area of intersection small -- overall charges will still be permitted in fieldless badges.

We believe that this design adheres to these requirements, though perhaps by a narrow degree. The underlying charge is longer than it is wide and the overlying charge covers only about 1/8 of the underlying charge's length. Indeed, the coronet does not obscure the identifying features of the horn, which are located at its extremities. We also note that the aforementioned badge of Rowen O'Ceallachain of Muscraidhe is of a similar nature - a similar-shaped charge enfiled of a coronet - though the registration makes no mention of whether then-Laurel considered this a case of an overall charge used in a fieldless badge.

The submitter includes a blanket letter of permission to conflict for any armory, "…that looks similar to, but not identical to, [this badge] with the stipulation that the new armory must use a different type of crown or coronet." For example, (Fieldless) A drinking horn palewise argent enfiling a ducal coronet Or would be acceptable to the submitter.

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lyondemere, Barony of

William Wisehart - Resub Laurel name and Resub kingdom device:

Per pale Or and gules, a stag's head caboshed counterchanged

[Name] The submitter's previous name submission, Ognar de Lyondemere, as returned by Laurel 06/03 for lack of documentation. The submitter desires a masculine name. He will accept all changes and if the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning, "Wise Hart".

William is a header spelling in Withycombe, 3rd ed. (pp. 293-294) where the author states "introduced into England by the Normans in the 11th C, from which time it has held its place as one of the commonest men's names (from the 16th to 19th C, for instance, it averages 10 per cent. of baptismal entries in parish registers), tying with John for first place."

Wisehart is the submitter's legal last name as it appears on his California driver's license. A copy of the license is not provided, because the submission was taken at an event consult table where there was no photocopy machine available. Cormac Mór, Silver Trumpet and Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Crescent both signed the form indicating that they witnessed the submitter's information.

[Armory] The submitter's previous device submission, Per pale gules and Or, a deer's skull counterchanged was returned by Crescent 12/02 for conflict with Æthelmearc, (Fieldless) A stag's head cabossed per pale Or and gules. Reversing the tinctures clears this conflict.

This submission is very similar to Otto von Bern (03/98), Per pale Or and gules, a ram's skull cabossed counterchanged. There is at least a CD between a ram's skull and a stag's head and, as no precedent appears to exist, we are sending this forward as we expect that there is an X2 difference.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


OP Notes

Elric Thrusensen of Dragons Keep's Harp Argent was in Leatherwork (currently marked "?").

Mercy of the Hands is currently listed in the OP as Mercy of the Healing Hands.

Sárnat ingen mhic Caille is currently listed in the OP as Sárnat MacNeil.

Willim Du is currently listed in the OP as William of Altavia. He is currently the Queen's Crossbow Champion.

William Wisehart is currently listed in the OP as Ognar of Lyondemere.


Bibliography

Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Swedish Feminine Given Names from SMP", www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/smp/elin.html.

Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. 4th ed. Oxford University, New York, 1960. [Ekwall]

Elton, Hugh, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors", www.roman-emperors.org

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. "Encyclopædia Britannica Online" www.britannica.com, ©2004.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977. [Geirr Bassi]

Gloucester and District Archaeological Research Group - www.gadarg.org.uk/us.htm

Gunnvör sílfrahárr, "Old Norse Men's Names and their Meanings", www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm

IM Publications, http://www.impub.co.uk/dlug1.html "The Annals of Jan Dlugosz An abridged edition in English of the great medieval chronicle", www.impub.co.uk/dlug1.html. ©1997

Luana de Grood, "Flemish Names from Bruges", www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/given-list.html

Morgan, T.J. and Morgan, Prys , Welsh Surnames. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985 [Morgan & Morgan]

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990. [OCM]

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995. [R&W]

Unknown. "Welcome to the village of Gosprzydowa", www.gosprzydowa.pl/start_eg.html.

Walraven van Nijmegen (Brian R. Speer) "Polish Given Names in Nazwiska Polakow" www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/polish

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press 3rd ed. 1977. [Withycombe]

van der Schaar, J. Woordenboek van Voornamen. Utrecht: Het Spectrum B.V. (Prisma), 1992.

Zoëga, Geir T. " A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic", http://www.northvegr.org/zoega/h111.php


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