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Minutes of the 4 APRIL 2004 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Sep 04 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

Meeting commenced at 11:00AM.

In attendance were: Jeanne Marie Crescent, Lachlan Dolphin, Su Battlement, Islyle le Gannoker de Gavain, Selene Aurum, Christopher Golden Rose, Hrorek Chevron, Perrin le Blanc, Ryan of Rickford, Rothric Kynith, Gwyneth, Sarah Minet, Cormac Silver Trumpet, Kean Trident, Vivienne de Lampérière, Kurt Sommelier, Bruce Oak Leaf, Tristan, Diego Rivera de Soldano, and Thomas Brownwell.

The next heraldry meetings will be: May 23rd, June 20th, July 11th, August 8th and September 12th. NOTE: the June meeting has been rescheduled to avoid conflict with Queen's Champion Equestrian.

First quarter reports are now overdue. Territorial heralds are required to provide Crescent with a copy of all ceremonies and a copy of their inventory of regalia and property.

Approved submissions will be forwarded to Laurel on the May 10, 2004 Letter of Intent

Results of the December and January LoARs were discussed. Of particular note is the fact that the wording for X4.j has been changed (per the December LoAR). Everyone is encouraged to check out the Trimaris return (Barony of the Southern Wastes) in the January LoAR. Crescent notes that the January LoAR is dated April 1st and reminds people to keep that in mind.

Scottish Clans & Families has been donated to the College library by Cormac Mor.

Items marked † were submitted at Fall Collegium.


Caid, Kingdom of

Caid, Kingdom of - Transfer of heraldic title Astrolabe Herald to Lochac, Kingdom of.

Laurel returned the original transfer of this title to Locac, Kingdom of in December 2003 because, "No Letter of Acceptance of Transfer was received from Lochac for this item. Additionally, no Acceptance of Transfer item for Lochac was listed on an LoI from Lochac". Crux Australis has requested that this transfer be resubmitted.

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Caid, Kingdom of - Transfer of heraldic title Blue Lymphad to Ildhafn, Barony of.

Laurel returned the original transfer of this title in December because, "No Letter of Acceptance of Transfer was received from Ildhafn for this item. Additionally, no Acceptance of Transfer item was listed for Ildhafn on an LoI from Lochac.". Crux Australis has requested that this transfer be resubmitted.

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Caid, Kingdom of - Transfer of heraldic title Tour d'Or to Southron Gaard, Barony of.

Laurel returned the original transfer of this title in December because "No Letter of Acceptance of Transfer was received from Southron Gaard for this item. Additionally, no Acceptance of Transfer item was listed for Southron Gaard on an LoI from Lochac." Crux Australis has requested that this transfer be resubmitted.

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


al-Sahid, Shire of

Valente Pastor de la Vega - New Name.

The submitter desires a masculine name. He will not permit any changes.

Valente is the submitter's legal given name, as shown by a copy of his California driver's license.

Pastor is a given masculine name, found in Melcon, (s.n. Pastor, pg. 261). It is documented Terry H Jones' "Patron Saints Index" (part of the Catholic Community Forum http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintp0a.htm), which gives 6 August as his memorial. The site states "Brother of Saint Justus. The child made a public proclamation of his Christianity, and was promptly arrested on the orders of Dacian, governor of Spain. Scourged to make the boy retract his confession; he refused. Martyr." Saint Pastor was born c.295 in Spain and was martyred at Alcala at the age of 9 in 304. This list refers to his canonization as "Pre-Congregation", which the author defines as "...the beatification and/or canonization of saints and/or beati prior to the institution of the modern investigations performed by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints... It means that the dates for beatification and/or canonization are not available." The author references Roman Martyrology, 3rd Turin edition.

de la Vega is found in "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" by Juliana de Luna (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/MenFullNames4.html), which lists: Pedro de la Vega.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Altavia, Barony of

Sárnat ingen mhic Caille - Kingdom Resub Name.

The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be change she cares most about the sound (Sar nit mac Kelahe). She will accept ingen (or other form of "daughter of" if necessary for registration). She will accept lenition if necessary. She will accept a later form of the name if necessary; this is preferable to adding ingen if it retains the sound (especially of the given name). Her previous submission, Sarvar Fatima Isfahani, was returned by Crescent 07/01 for lack of documentation.

This was submitted as Sárnat Mac-Caille.

Sárnat is found in OCM (s.n. Sárnat, p. 161) as a feminine given name. St. Sárnat's feast day is 9 Nov; it is the feminine form of Sárán.

Mac Caille is found in OCM (s.n. MacCaille, p. 127) as a masculine given name. It was the given name of a saintly bishop whose feast day is 25 April.

As submitted, the name consists of a double given name, which is not permitted in Irish Gaelic. The submitter granted us permission to add ingen to the name, which we have done.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Angels, Barony of

Fu Ching Lan - New Household Name (Chateau Fleur Delatour) and Badge:

Quarterly sable and argent, four fleurs-de-lys in annulo one, two and one, counterchanged

The submitter's primary name was registered 04/02. The submitter will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning "Flowers in the Tower". No documentation was provided.

Fleur is a French prenom, found in Dauzat (s.n. Fleur, p. 258), where it is listed a feminine baptismal name frequent in the Middle Ages.

Delatour is an undated locative, from Dauzat (s.n. Tour, p. 573). Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" includes Luquet de la Tour.

Submitted as Castle Fleur de la Tour, the designator was changed from Castle to Chateau to place the name entirely in French. Chateau, meaning "castle" is a standard French household designator in the SCA (for example, Rousse, Chateau La, registered 08/91, among others).

The armory is in a distinctly non-period style, but we believe that at worst it's a single weirdness. The badge is to be associated with the household name.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Fu Ching Lan - New Badge.

Per pale sable and argent, a tiger queue forchy and a dragon rampant within a bordure fleury-counter-fleury counterchanged

The submitter's primary name was registered 04/02. If registered, this badge is to be associated with the household name Chateau Fleur de la Tour, submitted above. This is a second badge associated with the same household. This will be her fourth piece of armory, if both badges are registered. We note that the line of division is not "fleury-counterfleury", but is instead a bordure with fleurs surmounted over and counterchanged over the line of division between field and bordure.

Even if the bordure were drawn properly, this badge also has the appearance of marshalling. By precedent, presence of a bordure counterchanged does not clear a design consisting of a per pale line of division of running afoul of RfS XI.3.

Bordures in impaled arms traditionally cut off at the line of division. If one impaled the hypothetical arms Argent, a cross fleury within a bordure gules and Gules, a lion within a bordure argent, the resultant impaled armory would appear to be Per pale argent and gules, a cross fleury and a lion within a bordure counterchanged. As a result, armory using a per pale line of division, a bordure, and different types of charges on each side of the line of division will look like marshalled arms if the bordure changes tincture at the line of division. ... Thus, the only case in which a bordure may remove the appearance of impalement from armory which would otherwise appear to be impaled is if the bordure is a solid tincture and if it has poor contrast with one half of the field. That is the case with this device. [Pegge Leg the Merchant, 03/02, A-An Tir]

Badge returned for the appearance of marshalling.


Calafia, Barony of

Aaron Drachen - New Name.

The submitter desires a masculine name. He will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

Aaron is from Bahlow/Gentry (1st ed., on p. 20), under the header L'Arronge. The entry appears to date "Aaron jude" to the 14th C in Brussels (with "jude" meaning

"Jew").Drachen is from Bahlow/Gentry (1st ed., on p. 90), under the header Draa(c)k. It is not dated in this spelling, though Drachin is dated to 1363, and Drache is dated to 1357. All of these forms refer to drache, "dragon", for which drachen is the plural nominative and the singular dative forms. The submitted form seems correctly formed.

Unfortunately this conflicts with Aaron von dem Drachen, registered 07/86 via the West.

Name returned for conflict.


Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys - New Name.

The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Aluara is documented from the May 2002 LoAR, which has a two-paragraph discussion on the registration of Aluara Hesel. The text of this registration includes:

The LoI noted that "[i]f the name must be changed, the submitter cares most about the sound of the name, 'similar to "Allura"'." The LoI also inquired about the November 1993 registration of Aluuara O'Reilly. Aluuara is a plausible documentary form of the Old English feminine given name Ælfwaru, which Searle (p. 24) dates from c. 990 to 1012. Searle (p. 520) lists Uluuara and Uluara as variants of the Old English feminine name Wulfwaru. Following these examples, Aluuara and Aluara are plausible forms of Ælfwaru. The w to uu switch is typical of documentary forms of the period and would still have been pronounced as a w. Since the second form is closer to the submitter's requested form, we have changed the given name to this form in order to register the name. [Aluara Hesel, 05/02, A-An Tir]

verch is Welsh, "daughter of"

Morgan is a header in Morgan & Morgan, p.168. The text of this entry says it is medieval, but dates only the odd spellings. Kean de Lacy, Trident Pursuivant, is working on an index of Morgan & Morgan by first name. He notes that Morgan is in found in this spelling dated to 1553 (p.92, under Einion), 1248-9 (p.64, under Caerleon), between 1425 and 1536 (p.95, under Elidir), and to 1530 (p.59, under Bychan). Morgan is also found in Gruffudd (p. 93) with Morgan Hen dated to 973.

ap is Welsh, "son of".

Rhys is a header in Morgan&Morgan, p.185. It is dated in this spelling to 1312 (p.45, under Arawn), 1421 (p.52, under Blainey), and 1399 (p.77, under Cyffin) Rhys is also found in Gruffudd Welsh Personal Names (p. 83) with Rhys ap Tewdwr dated to 1093 and Rhys ap Gruffudd dated 1132-97.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Anne de Beausoleil - Laurel Appeal of Name Return.

The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for 1500s French but did not mark the box requesting changes for authenticity. She will allow all changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning (Anne of Beausoleil). Her previous name submission, Anne du Beausoleil, was returned on the September 2003 LoAR with the comments:

This name is being returned for lack of evidence that the placename Beausoleil was used in period.

The byname du Beausoleil was documented from Morlet's Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille, a source that rarely gives dates. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnaire Étymologique des noms de lieux en France (s.n. Beausoleil), state that Beausoleil is a recent name. Barring evidence that the placename Beausoleil was used in period, this byname is not registerable.

In addition, no evidence was presented for the use of du (derived from de le 'of the') rather than de 'of' with this byname. In any resubmission of this name that includes the byname du Beausoleil, the appropriateness of du, rather than de, should be addressed.

This submission has documentation from ancestry.com (included in packet) which lists a Baron de Beausoleil (1576?-1643) and a Baroness de Beausoleil (1602-1640). She also lists a couple other websites (http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/6868/cu01033.html - Nice French Rivera - History - Village of the Month; and http://perso.wanadoo.fr/tgveurofrance.com/beausoleilen.htm - Site gives the history of the village, including the name change.) and notes that there are 3 registered Beausoleils in the SCA, most recently 1998. None of them use "de."

Beuasoleil is found as a surname dated to at least 1634 in Dictionnaire des Theatres de Paris, originally published in 1767 (http://www.cesar.org.uk/cesar2/books/parfaict_1767/display.php?volume=1). A scanned copy of the book shows on p. 398 (s.n. Beausoleil, http://www.cesar.org.uk/cesar2/books/parfaict_1767/display.php?volume=1&index=398) "BEAUSOLEIL, Comédien de la même Troupe, & contrmporain de précédent. Hift. Du Th. Fr. année 1634".

A Google search indicates that the Baron and Baroness de Beausoleil were known for using dowsing to locate mineral deposits. A typical example of the discussion of their work is found at http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/dowsing/d01.htm.

Name forwarded to Laurel with the College's support.


Chamayn of Castile - New name and device.

Per chevron azure and purpure, a mermaid argent tailed vert and crined sable, sustaining a trident and maintaining a shield Or

The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Chamayn is the submitter's mundane middle name. A copy of her driver license is included. She says that it comes from the name of the wife of El Cid, though spellings vary. Crescent notes that El Cid's wife was Jimena or Xemena, the niece of Alfonso (King of Castile and Leon). If these are actually versions of the same name, and we found nothing to indicate that they are not, then the submitter's middle name appears to have been a given name and should be registerable as a given name in the SCA.

DeWayne is the submitter's middle name, not his given name. A Middle name is treated by type: if it is structurally a given name it can be used as a given name, but if it is structurally a surname it can only be used as a surname. [DeWayne of Locks, 10/99, R-Calontir]

No evidence was found that El Cid's wife was ever known as Xemena de Castilla.

The September 2003 LoAR discusses Castile:

Submitted as Jimena Xemenez de Castile, the submitter requested authenticity for the 13th C and allowed any changes. The LoI stated, "The client cares most about having a name from Castile Iberia and wishes it to be authentic for the 13th century."...

The submitted byname de Castile is an English form rather than a Spanish form:

The byname de Castile was submitted as a byname referring to the town in Spain. Castile is the English form of the name and de Castile is an English byname referring to that town. Spanish forms of this byname are de Castil and de Castilla and are found in Juliana de Luna's article "Spanish Names of the Late 15th Century" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/). [Adam Carlos Diaz de Castile, 12/2002, A-Atenveldt]

Siren provided information regarding forms of de Castile as a Spanish byname in the submitter's desired time period:

Both the spelling <Castilla> and <Castiella> are found for the kingdom in the same source [El Mio Cid]. While it is true that in the 13th century, <de Castilla> is largely limited to descendants of the kings of Castilla, by the end of period, the surname <de Castilla> is found widely, including for rather poor individuals (in volumes of the Catalogo de Pasajeros a Indias).

Since forms of the byname de Castilla did not imply descent from the kings of Castile in late period, this byname is not presumptuous as a late period byname. [Xemena Xemenez, 09/03, A-Middle]

The name has one weirdness for claiming the legal name allowance. Note: the submitter has been contacted to see if she will accept "de Castilla" as a surname so as to make the name more acceptable in (and as) Spanish. As de Castille is the English version of the locative, this should be registerable under the Lingua Anglica allowance.

According to precedent, this trident is sustained as it is of a greater length than the charge holding it. In fact, the head of this trident is about as large as is possible for a spear-type charge as well.

[a sea-lion sustaining a sword bendwise sinister] The sword in this emblazon is as long as the sea-lion is tall. The sea-lion has notably more visual weight than the sword because the sea-lion is many times wider than the sword. This lead some members of the College to question whether the sword should be considered a maintained charge rather than a sustained charge. However, there is precedent indicating that the sword in this emblazon should be considered a sustained charge:

[a bear rampant contourny sustaining a halberd] Regarding the "significance" of the halberd, as Green Crown noted, a charge consisting mostly of a long skinny handle will always have difficulty matching the visual weight of other charges, but here the sizes of the charges are about the same as would be expected if they were in fess a bear and a halberd. That seems to be a reasonable rule of thumb for determining sustained (and qualifying for a CD), as opposed to maintained (and not qualifying for a CD), charges. (LoAR September 1994 p. 9)

In arms with a sea-lion and a sword in fess, the sword would be as long as the sea-lion is tall. Therefore, this sword should be considered a sustained charge. [Atlantia, Kingdom of, 02/02, A-Atlantia]

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Fionn na Áth na Long inín Mughdharna - Kingdom Resub Name and Device.

Azure, on a cross of Coldharbor argent a tree blasted and eradicated vert

Her previous submissions, under the name Fianna Rhiannon McKnight, were returned in September 2003 for multiple problems. The submitter desires a feminine name. She will accept no changes, but if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning and sound (Fionn of the Ford of the Ships daughter of the Mughdharna).

Fionn is in OC&M (s.n. Finn: Fionn, p. 100), where it is listed as both a masculine and feminine name meaning "fair, bright, white, light-hued". They note "In the later middle ages, the name remained in use especially among the O Dempseys and the O Driscolls. Finn was also a female name but was relatively uncommon."

Áth na Long is documented by the submitter from the website http://www.ireland-now.com/culture/placenames.html, which lists "Ath" as meaning "ford in a river or stream" and from MacBain's Gaelic-English Dictionary (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb24.html), which lists "long" as meaning "a ship." No documentation was provided for the construction of the elements.

The submitter asserts that inín is an alternate for ingen/inghean. Mughdorna is documented from the website http://www.magoo.com/hugh/mourne.html, which quotes Joyce's The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places as saying that Mughdarna was the name of a tribe and the name of a place they settled in the 12th C. We have no justification of the change of the "o' to an 'a".

The four piercings are too small and are obscured by the tree, making it impossible to identify this as a cross of Coldharbor, and the tree also loses identifiability due to the size and placement of the piercings..

Name returned for lack of documentation. Device returned for redraw due to lack of identifiability.


Gamel of Mottrum - Kingdom Resub Device.

Per bend sinister gules and sable, a gamelyon rampant to sinister argent

His name was registered 11/04 as Gamel of Motrum. A name correction to Gamel of Mottrum appears on Caid's March LoI. His previous submission with the same blazon was returned by Crescent March 2003 for a redraw of the gamelyon. The minutes note:

The consulting herald notes that the blazon gamelyon is more important to the submitter than the emblazon. While this could be blazoned as a bat-winged lion, this does not match the emblazon found in Dennys. If this is resubmitted with an emblazon that matches that in Dennys, we will send it up as a gamelyon. We note that Wreath may still reblazon the resulting critter as a winged lion or return it as a unique (or unidentifiable) charge.

The new charge is a close copy of the emblazon found in Dennys. Documentation for a gamelyon is included (p. 142 in Dennys' Heraldic Imagination):

This odd creature makes but one appearance in armory and was evidently conjured up in the mind of Sir William Dethick, Garter King of Arms, who granted to Thomas Gardner of South Brent in Somerset, in July 1557, the following arms: Quarterly gules and azure on a Bend cotised or between two 'Gamelyons rampant and Volant supporting in their forefoote a Ring or with a Garnett proper' or a Lion's head caboshed of the first with a buckle in his mouth silver between two Fleur de Lys sable. In the Queen's College version the beasts are depicted in trick with lion's body, legs, feet, and tail, indeterminate bead with slightly turned up snout, and Dragon's wings. In two College of Arms manuscripts they are depicted like Dragons rampant, while another depicts them like Griffins segreant. Clearly Sir William Dethick had his contemporaries guessing; but as he was considered the most skilful herald of his day, and a member of the original Society of Antiquaries, it is likely that he had some reason for creating this creature.

The submitter directly traced the emblazon found in Dennys in order to satisfy Crescent's requirement. Unfortunately, it resulted in the gamelyon being smaller than ideal. . The submitter is advised to draw the gamelyon larger in the future.

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Hakon Bloodaxe of Orkney - New Name and Device.

Per bend gules and sable, an eagle helmeted and a bordure Or

The submitter desires a masculine name authentic for Viking language/culture, though he did not mark the box requesting changes to make the name authentic. He will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

Hakon is in Withycombe (s.n. Hacon, p.144); this spelling is noted as the Old Norse origin of the English name. It is undated in this spelling but Hacon is dated to the Doomsday Book. "The name was introduced into England by the Danes and survived the Norman Conquest." Geirr Bassi (p. 11) lists Hákon as a masculine given name.

Bloodaxe is the Lingua Anglica translation of blóðøx, found on p. 20 of Geirr Bassi. Submitted as Blood Axe, we believe that byname should be a single word, Bloodaxe. The Orkney Islands are located off the coast of Scotland. Black (s.n. Orkney, p. 640) states "Thomas Orkney of Scotland was illegally arrested at Lowestoff, 1405...". Geirr Bassi has inn eyverski (p. 21), "man from the Orkney Islands". From the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica "In 1468 the Orkneys and Shetlands were pledged by Christian I. of Denmark for the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III. of Scotland, and as the money was never paid, their connection with the crown of Scotland has been perpetual." (q.v. Orkney Islands, http://51.1911encyclopedia.org/O/OR/ORKNEY_ISLANDS.htm).

The name as a whole is an Anglicized (or Lingua Anglica) form of the name Hákon blóðøx inn eyverski.

Although the name is clear of conflict, please note that there is a Haakon Bloodaxe registered in Caid in May of 1994.

The device conflicts with Gules, a duck displayed head affronty within a bordure Or. (Athelwulf the Ancient of the Dry Lands, badge registered 01/85)

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for conflict.


Iduna Stor Sitjandi - New name and device.

Sable, a valknut argent within a bordure counter-compony gules and argent

The submitter desires a feminine name authentic for 10th century Norse. She will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning (Iduna "Big Butt". taken from Icelandic).

The documentation on the form states:

"Iduna from the prose edda ("Translations from the Icelandic")

Though we were unable to find Iduna in use as a female, non god, name her husband's name, Bragi (also a god) appears in the saga's - Volungakvida Hin Forna ("The North Men Talk").

Stor Sitjandi is a nickname derived from translating "big butt" into Icelandic - per an online translator, and someone who speak Icelandic."

For the only registration of Iduna (04/88, Iduna Snorrisdottir), Laurel noted "As Geirr Bassi gives two examples of "Iðunn" used by humans in period, the given name would seem to be acceptable." The submitter should be aware that Laurel may no longer consider Iduna plausible and may change the given name to the documented form, Iðunn, if this is forwarded with documentation for the byname. Unfortunately, we do not have any way to verify the construction of the byname.

Name returned for lack of documentation. Device pended for lack of name.


Jason Brewer the Mad - New name.

This was submitted as Jason "the Mad" Brewer. (Quotation marks and all.) The submitter desires a masculine name. He will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning of "the mad brewer". The submitter will not accept a name without the element "the mad." He will accept "Jason Brewer the Mad" if absolutely necessary."

Jason is the submitter's mundane given name. Photocopies of his driver's license are provided.

Brewer is in R&W (s.n. Brewere, p.63 ), with la Brewere dated to 1278 and Browere dated to 1201-12. Thuresson's "Middle English Occupational Terms," p.201, cites Berebrewer to 1423, showing that Brewer could be used without the final E.

the Mad - Bardsley, p.505 (s.n. Mad) dates Jordan le Madde to temp. Edward I.

We were unable to document the name order as submitted. We believe that <given name><inherited surname><epithet> is possible if not necessarily authentic and so are sending this forward in the alternative form the submitter allows.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Jenefer Philippa Crosthwaite - New Name and Device.

Per pale ermine and Or, two lions combattant and in chief a crescent gules

The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for 12th-15th century, though she did not mark the box to make changes for authenticity. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about sound.

Jenefer is in R&W (s.n. Jennifer, p.254). It is found in Bardsley (s.n. Jenifer, p. 429), dated in this spelling to a daughter of Thomas Bosowarne, 1554. It is also dated by Reaney to 1554 in Cornwall, apparently as a feminine given name (s.n. Jennifer, p. 254).

Philippa is in Withycombe (s.n., Philippa, p.245) where it is dated to the 15th C. Withycombe notes that this is the form found in Latin records; women so named were actually called Philip. She also notes "The modern use of Philippa is quite recent." The change from Latin to English is a major change. Julian Goodwyn's "Brass Enscription Index" includes Philippa, where it is dated to 1383. It does not appear that these names are Latin forms, so this may be a case where Withycombe is mistaken. Crescent notes that Philippa appears in parish records from the late 1600's on (where the names do not appear to be Latinized), so Withycombe's "quite recent" may apply to the common use of Philippa in the vernacular rather than the occasional use (which appears to be have been rare, and thus Withycombe may just not have been aware of the vernacular usage).

Crosthwaite is in R&W (s.n. Crosthwaite, p.118); it is undated in this spelling. Dated forms are de Crostweyt (1242) and de Crosthuaite (1332).

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lonán ua Conaill - New Badge.

(Fieldless) A raven rising sable

His name was registered in August 2001.

We note this is a nicely-drawn, hairy raven. Unfortunately, it conflicts with the device of Cigfran Myddrael Joserlin, the Raven Argent, a raven rising reguardant, wings disclosed proper, in the dexter claw a sword gules. (registered 08/76). There is no difference for the maintained charge, and no difference for Cigfran's raven being reguardant.

Badge returned for conflict.


Tarla the Twin of Dartford - Kingdom Resub Device Change.

Vert, an elephant's head cabossed ermine

Her previous device change submission, Vert, an elephant's head cabossed argent, was returned by Crescent in November 2003 for conflict with Edward the Incorrigible, Azure, an elephant's head cabossed argent, maintaining in its trunk a seax bendwise Or (registered 08/84). This resubmission clears the conflict by changing the tincture of the head. If this device is registered, she wishes to release her old device Sable, an elephant's head cabossed, on a chief argent three keys palewise wards to chief sable (registered 04/99).

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Uther the Small - Kingdom Resub. Device.

Vert, a bull's head caboshed argent armed Or and on a chief argent three crosses patonce fitchy vert

His name was registered 02/03. His previous submission, Vert, a bull's head caboshed argent armed Or and on a chief enarched argent fimbriated sable three crosses patonce fitched vert, was returned by Crescent in 12/03 with the following commentary:

Unfortunately, single-sided ordinaries may not be fimbriated. If he removes the fimbriation, we will reconsider it. Note that we did not check this for conflict. We also gently suggest making the chief straight, not enarched, and drawing the crosses larger.

The submitter has fixed all of the defects of the previous submission.

Device approved and sent to Laurel.


Vlad the Indifferent - New Name and Device.

Sable, a winged serpent, wings displayed Or

The submitter desires a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning ("My name is Vlad and I am indifferent").

Vlad is in Wickenden (2nd Ed.) p.262 as the header spelling; dated in this spelling to 1424.

Indifferent is listed in the OED (compact edition) p.1416 (p.211) as a header. It is dated in this spelling and meaning to 1413, among others.

Russian/English is registerable but a weirdness (q.v. Ladislaus de Brody, 07/00).

The device conflicts with Jonathan Hawke, Per saltire gules and sable, a pithon erect, wings displayed, Or. (Registered 03/92).

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for conflict.


Wilhelm Skalla Grimm - Kingdom Resub. Name and New Device.

Gules, a sheaf of three bolts of lightning and in base the roman numerals XXIII Or, overall a boar sable crested and armed argent

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

His previous name submission, Wilhelm Grimm, was returned by Crescent 11/03 for conflict with Wilhelm Grimm of the brothers Grimm. The addition of one name element clears this conflict.

Wilhelm is in Bahlow/Gentry (2nd ed., p.554) as the header spelling. It is dated to 1171.

Grimm is in Bahlow/Gentry, (2nd ed., p. 171) as the header spelling. Dated to 1284.

Skalla- is given as a prefix by name in Geirr Bassi (p. 27) meaning "bald-pate".

Since Skalla is documented as a Norse prefix, we must return the name since this name element is in the wrong position.

The device has not been conflict checked. The lightning bolts are too obscured by the boar, the numbers need to be drawn thicker. While gray and white are both argent for heraldic purposes, the submitter is advised to leave the boar white for submission purposes (though it can be displayed as light gray or silver); it currently is not clearly silver or black. We also recommend that the crest on the boar be drawn significantly smaller; this will aid in the identifiability of both the boar and the lightening bolts.

Name returned for lack of documentation. Device returned for redraw.


Tanwayour, Canton of (Calafia)

Colin of Eilean Donan - New Device.

Or, in pale three trees fesswise reversed gules

His name was registered 06/00.

The trees are difficult to distinguish, looking somewhat like chicken drumsticks or guitars. Had they been drawn in their usual, upright position, they may have been more recognizable. In this position, they must be drawn more clearly. We recommend rounder foliage and perhaps some detail where the trunk meets the foliage.

Device returned for redraw.


Fortuna Norreys - New Device.

Purpure, in pale in chief a roundel between an increscent and a decrescent and in base a mortar and pestle argent

Her name was registered 06/00.

This design has three different charges in the same charge group (crescents, roundel, and mortar/pestle), which violates RfS VIII.1.a, Tincture and charge limit. If the crescent and roundel are drawn significantly smaller than the mortar and pestle, so that they are clearly secondary charges, it would remove this problem. It would be even clearer if the crescents and roundel were placed on a chief rather in chief.

Device returned for slot-machine heraldry.


Darach, Shire of

Alice Elizabeth Threadgold - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for 12-13th C English. She will allow all changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning of the byname indicating skill at sewing. She originally did not allow major changes; she changed her mind at the consult table. The form shows that the original surname was Threadwell; the submitter changed this to Threadgold.

Alice is found in Withycombe 3rd ed. (s.n. Alice, p. 15), dated to 1273.

Elizabeth is found in Withycombe 3rd ed. (s.n. Elzabeth, pp. 99-101) dated 1205.

Threadgold is found in R&W (s.n. Threadgold, p. 445), dated 1166 and 1199.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Aran Darkhelm - New Alternate Name Ari svartihjálmr

His primary name was registered 06/02. He is interested in a masculine name. He will accept all changes. He states "I would like something sounding similar to Aran authentic for Old Norse."

Ari is found in Geirr Bassi, p.7, as a masculine given name.

svarti is found in Geirr Bassi, p.28, as a descriptive epithet meaning "black". He cites examples of svartaskáld, svartipurs and svartkollr ("black skald", "black giant", "black pate"), showing it to be used in this type of construction.

hjálmr is found in Geirr Bassi, p.23, meaning "helmet". The byname is intended to mean "black helm".

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Cicilia la Seria - New Name Change from Eleri ferch Morien.

Submitted as Cicilia dal Serio.

The submitter's current name, Eleri ferch Morien, was registered 11/03. If the new name is accepted, she wishes her current name retained as an alternate name. She desires a feminine name authentic for Italian language. She permits all changes, but wishes the byname to be "Serio" or some trivial variant thereof.

Cicilia is documented as a feminine Italian given name of the 14th or 15th century, in "Italian Renaissance Women's Names" by Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale (www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html).

dal is the Italian preposition "of the".

The Serio River is a river in Lombardy, N. Italy (CLG 1735), undated. If this is not considered acceptable, she permits the byname to be changed to "la Seria", "the Serious". (Oxford Italian Dictionary, p.200). We have found Serio = "serious, sober" from Fucilla (p. 68) as a surname, but we are unable to document the form "from (a River)", so we are sending up the alternate name per the submitter's request. If the College can aid us in justifying the original submission, we would be most grateful.

Name approved as changed and sent to Laurel.


Elizabeth Greene - New badge.

(Fieldless) In pale a hedgehog rampant argent, its quills impaling grapes purpure, atop an oak tree fesswise vert

The submitter's name was registered 04/97. The motif of a hedgehog with roundels (i.e. grapes) stuck on its spine is found in period, in the crest of Claxton, confirmed 1561 (q.v. Heraldry by Bedingfeld and Gwynn-Jones, p.100). The blazon matches that of Mergriet van Edelare (07/96), Gules, a hedgehog statant argent its quills impaling grapes purpure, which was registered with the comment "Lovely armory! Hedgehogs impaling grapes are found in period rolls."

In SCA heraldry, the hedgehog would probably be considered maintained by the tree and worth no difference, as it is significantly smaller than the tree.

The grapes are too small to distinguish as depicted, and have virtually no contrast with the black quills of the hedgehog. As the grapes seem to be important to the submitter, we are returning this so that it can be redrawn to clearly show the grapes.

Badge returned for redraw.


Luzia da Silva - New Name Change (from Lucia da Silva) and Resub. Laurel Device

Or, three piles in point gules surmounted by a galleon under sail sable

The submitter desires a feminine name. No other boxes are marked. The submitter's current name, Lucia da Silva, was registered 02/03. At the time, Laurel noted:

The submitter requested authenticity for 15th to 16th C Portuguese and allowed no changes. The given name Lucia was documented from Elsbeth Anne Roth's article "16th Century Spanish Women's Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/spanish.html). Aryanhwy merch

Catmael found a Portuguese form of this name:

<Luzia> is found 6 times in my (in-process) "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" (http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/lisbon1565.htm). <da Silva> is found three times, and <da Sillva> once.

From this information, Luzia da Silva and Luzia da Sillva would be authentic forms of this name for the submitter's desired time and culture. As she allows no changes, we have registered this name in the submitted form.

She is taking Laurel's advice and changing the name as suggested. She has not specified the old name was to be retained, so it may be released.

The submitter's previous device submission, Or, three piles in point gules surmounted by a galleon under sail sable, was returned by Laurel in 04/03 with the comment:

Conflict with Cyneric Dracaheorte, Or, three piles two from chief and one from base gules overall a reremouse sable. There is one CD for changing the type of the overall charge. There is no difference for inverting less than half of the primary charge group (only one of a group of three piles). Note that piles in point are not given difference from piles issuant from chief and palewise, so the tilting of the outermost piles is not worth any posture or orientation difference: "[Three piles in point and an overall charge, vs. 3 piles] 'Addition of the overall charge is only one CVD' [This implies no difference between piles and piles in point] (LoAR 4/91 p.13)."

She provides a letter of permission to conflict from Cyneric Dracaheorte.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Salomea Imhof - New device.

Purpure, three penners and inkhorns argent

Her name appears on Caid's March LoI.

Penners and inkhorns are period devices used in the arms of the Worshipful Company of Scrivener's, and dated to 1530, as noted in the Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry (q.v. PENNER AND INKHORN, no. 561).

Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Wystan Flecher - New Name

The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 13th C, though he didn't check the box to make changes for authenticity. He allows all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning ("arrow maker"). He originally did not allow the creation of a holding name; he changed his mind (and initialed the change).

Wystan is a masculine given name, found in Withycombe 3rd ed. (s.n. Wystan, p.294), where it is dated in this spelling to 1190.

Flecher is found in R&W (s.n. Fletcher, p.171), where it is dated in this spelling to 1203.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Connor Black - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

Connor is found in Withycombe (s.n. Connor, p. 72) as an Irish name. Withycombe is not considered reliable for non-English names; however, further documentation was not sought as a conflict was found.

Black is found in MacLysaght (s.n. Black, p. 18) as a Scottish and English name. Firther documentation was not sought as a conflict was found.

This name conflicts with Connor the Black (registered 11/94, via Meridies).

Name returned for conflict.


Tatiana of the Steppes - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound. The submitter originally marked no minor changes but changed the form at the consult table.

Tatiana is a variant of Tat'iana, dated in the submitted spelling to 1500 in Wickenden 3rd edition (s.n. Tat'iana p. 360).

of the Steppes: The Barony of the Steppes was registered 10/76. As the OED shows "steppes" to be post-period in English, so we are using the SCA territory to document the locative.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Gallavally, Canton of (Dreiburgen)

Islyle le Gannoker de Gavain - Badge transfer.

Per bend sinister vert and gules, a panda bear sejant affronty proper, in chief two estoiles Or

Islyle wishes to transfer the ownership of this badge to her daughter whose name submission appears below, Una Lofnheidr. Unfortunately, due to the recipient's name being returned at this time, this transfer must be pended.

Transfer pended due to lack of name for recipient.


Una Lofnheidr - New Name, and acceptance of transfer of armory.

Per bend sinister vert and gules, a panda bear sejant affronty proper, in chief two estoiles Or

The submitter is most interested in a feminine name authentic for Icelandic Norse, 900-950 A.D., though she did not mark the box requesting changes to make the name authentic. She will not accept major changes, and if the name must be changed, she cares most about the language/culture.

Una is found in Geirr Bassi as a given name on page 15.

Lofnheidr is found in Geirr Bassi as a given name on page 13.

This name is comprised of two given names and no surname. Old Norse did not use unmarked patronymics (or metronymics), therefore this must be retuned. The submitter wishes this badge to be transferred to her and registered as her device. Unfortunately, as her name must be returned, we also cannot forward the transfer at this time.

Name returned for lack of surname. Device transfer pended for lack of name.


Mons Draconis, Canton of (Dreiburgen)

Christian MacAulay - New Name.

The submitter doesn't care about the gender of the name. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed she cares most about the meaing "Christian of the MacAulay clan". She will accept McAulay but prefers MacAulay.

Christian is found in "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" by Talan Gwynek (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html); it is dated to 1256 and 1614 in this spelling.

McAulay is dated to 1326 in Black (s.n. MACAULAY, p. 455); Macawlay is dated to 1591. Mac- is a standard variant of Mc-, for example, Black (s.n. MACALPIN, p. 451) has Macalpyn or McCalpy (ref ER which is 1264-1600). We MacAulay is a reasonable variant of McAulay.

This conflicts with Ciorstan MacAmhlaidh (registered 07/83 via Caid); despite the difference in spellings, the names are pronounced the same.

Name returned for conflict.


Dun Or, Barony of

William de Grey - New Name and Device.

Vert, three turtles Or

The submitter desires a masculine name authentic for 14th Century English. He permits all changes and if the name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.

Both elements are documented from the article "Brass Enscription Index" by Julian Goodwyn, on the Laurel web page (www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses). William is dated to 1323.

de Grey (note lowercase d) is dated to 1387. Submitted as William De Grey we have changed the capitalization to match the documentation, William de Grey. While Webster's Biographical Dictionary (p. 630) has an entry for William Grey, a contemporary of Henry VIII, who died in 1562 there is no entry for William de Grey in the on-line Encyclopedia Britannica and thus is probably not important enough to protect. The submitter blazoned the device as ...three sea-turtles Or because they have flippers instead of feet. Crescent feels that the distinction is too small to blazon and has chosen to use the more compact wording.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Jeanne Marie Lacroix - Administrative, Blanket Permission to Conflict

The submitter's name was registered 11/98. Her badge, Argent, a unicorn's head couped sable, was registered 11/98. Her badge, (Fieldless) A unicorn's head sable was registered 11/99. She includes a blanket letter of permission of conflict that states "I grant permission to any future submitter to register fielded armory that is at least one countable step different from my registered armory."

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lyondemere, Barony of

Asonuma Takeo - New Name Change (from Láebán Lacroix) and Kingdom Resub Device.

Gules, on a cross nowy Or a stag trippant sable, a bordure Or

His current name, Láebán Lacroix was registered 04/03. He is interested in a masculine name and permits all changes. His previous device submission, Gules, on a cross nowy Or an Irish deer statant contourny guardant sable, was returned by Crescent 10/02 with the comment:

There is a conflict with Elsa von Thüringen (01/93), Gules, on a cross nowy quadrate Or, a fireball proper. We are unsure whether there is a CD between the crosses and are returning this for consultation with the submitter on whether or not to proceed. We believe that this is simple according to R.f.S. X.4.j., so there is only one CD for changing the type of the tertiary.

Takeo is found in Solveig (AS 36), as a nanori (q.v. Samurai/Warrior, p.256) dated to 1392 meaning "strong/brave".

Asonuma is found in Solveig (AS 36), as a historical surname (p.313) dated to 1392.

Note that Asonuma Takeo is to be the submitter's new primary name; if it is registered, his current name Láebán Lacroix is to be retained as an alternate persona name. The submitter blazoned the tertiary as an Irish deer but it doesn't seem to be any different from a standard stag, so we've blazoned it thus.

Name and device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Franchesca MacBeth - New Device

(Fieldless) A triangle within and conjoined to an annulet argent

Her name was registered 01/03.

This design bears unmistakable similarity to symbols in use by chapters of Alcoholics Anonymous (yes, the submitter is aware of this). A Google search showed numerous examples of the design, always incorporating an equilateral triangle within a circle. Sometimes the triangle is conjoined within the circle, other times it is not. The circle and triangle are drawn as simple, thin lines, thick lines (as in this design), or filled shapes. No form of this symbol is trademarked by Alcoholics Anonymous. Conflict is not an issue; however, modern obtrusitivity may be an issue. RfS VIII.4.b states" Overt allusions to modern insignia, trademarks, or common designs may not be registered." Various forms of the triangle/circle are used in conjunction with AA but, as noted before, none of these variations are registered trademarks. Crescent believes that this does not rise to the level of obtrusiveness to merit return under this rule.

Badge forwarded to Laurel.


Litoris Longi, Lyceum (Lyondemere)

Alexander MacEvilly - New Name and Device.

Per pale vert and Or, a fox passant counterchanged

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will accept all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound.

Alexander is found in Withycombe (s.n. Alexander, p. 13) and is dated in Scotland from 1210. Withycombe notes "It was early adopted into Gaelic as Alasdair".

Mac Evilly is a header in MacLysaght p. 101 with the Gaelic form given as Mac an Mhílidh (from míleadh, warrior or knight). This is not in the SCA list of alternate titles. MacLysaght notes "An Irish patronymic assumed by the Stautons of Mayo."

The surname is from Woulfe, "Irish Names and Surnames", p. 315, with various spellings including M'Aveely, M'Evilee, M'Evelly and M'Ivile. These are in italics, which signifies that they are circa Elisabeth or James I.

Alexander MacEvilly is the Anglicized form of the name.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Litoris Longi, Lyceum - New badge

Sable, on a fess sable fimbriated the Latin letters "IL" Or

The branch name appears on Caid's November LoI . A petition of support is included.

The submitters believe that "IL" is an alternate method of writing "49" in Roman Numerals (fifty-minus-one).

Badge approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Litoris Longi, Lyceum - New badge

(Fieldless) A rock Or

The branch name appears on Caid's November LoI . A petition of support is included.

This conflicts with Zenobia of Rebelswood, Gules, a mountain couped Or (badge registered 02/86 via Calontir).

Badge returned for conflict.


Starkhafn, Barony of

Avraham ha Levi - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for 1100 Jerusalem. The submitter changed (and initialed) the spelling of the last name element on the form.

The name elements are documented from "Names of Jewish Men 6th to 11th Centuries" by Julie Stampnitzky (http://www.yucs.org/~jules/names/sixth.html and http://www.yucs.org/~jules/names/masc/avraham.html) with Shmuel b[en] Rabbi Avraham haLevi dated to the 1264 C. in Germany. Avraham appears multiple times in both articles. We note that, while the webpage shows the surname as haLevi with no space, the submitter has chosen to use the alternate form with the two words separated and we are forwarding it up unchanged.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Erik Loren Elcara - Administrative Name Correction from Eric Loren Elcara

The submitter will not accept changes. His current name, Eric Loren Elcara was registered 08/79. The name was originally submitted as Erik Loren Elcara, however; it appeared on the Eastern LoI (May, 1977) and the August 1979 LoAR as Eric Loren Elcara. Included is an e-mail from Daniel de Lincolia, Laurel Clerk, stating that "there is no fee" and that "all the name parts are covered by the grandfather clause" from August 1979.

Approved and forwarded to Laurel.


Lucius Alexandrinus - Laurel Resub. Device.

Gules, a cross crosslet between four crosses couped Or

His name was registered 01/03. His previous submission, Sable, an ankh with its lower limb surmounted by four bars couped between in chief two mullets of six points Or, was returned by Laurel 02/03 for using a charge not compatible with period heraldic practice. This is a complete redesign.

This device conflicts with important non-SCA arms: Jerusalem, Argent, a cross potent between four crosses couped Or (12/94).

Device returned for conflict.


Wintermist, Shire of

Avon Mora Moncaret - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will not accept major changes, and if the name must be changed, is most interested in the sound.

The first elements of the name are documented to Dauzat's Dictionnaire de Noms et Prenoms, 6th Ed:

Avon - Dauzat, p.18, cites this as a name of the place of origin ("n. de la localité d'origine"). It does not appear to be a given name.

Mora - Dauzat, p.440, cites it as a Corsican surname, an abbreviation of Moracchini or Mraccini.

Moncaret - cited in Dauzat's Noms de Lieux., pg 474. The submission doesnt have a given name, and so must be returned. The local herald notes that the submitter will accept anything that sounds like "ah-vuhn-more-uh".

Name returned for lack of given name.


Sa'id ibn Rafi' al-Rashid - New Name.

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He explicitly allows all changes; and if the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning "Said son of Rafi, the Right guided".

All of the elements are documented from "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" by Da'ud (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm). Sa'id is a masculine ism or given name. ibn is "son of". Rafi' is a masculine ism or given name. al-Rashid is a laqab meaning "the Rightly guided". Submitted as Said Ibn Rafi al Rashid, we have changed the name to match the documentation.

Name approved as changed and forwarded to Laurel.


Stephania Bérat - New Name and Device

Vert, a card pique, within an annulet of lozenges Or

The submitter is interested in a feminine name. She will accept minor but not major changes; and if the name must be changed, she cares most about the sound.

Stephania -is found in Morlet, Les Noms de Personne dur le Territoire de L'ancienne Gaule de VI au XII Siecle, p. 108, dated to 1004, 1079.

Berat is found in Dauzat, Dictionnaire de Noms de Lieux de France, pg. 72, dated to 1040.

The emblazon places the lozenges in an indeterminate arrangement between "an annulet of lozenges" and "semé of lozenges". While the confusion is not so great as to require the return of the design, the consulting herald asserts that the submitter does, indeed desire an annulet of lozenges. Crescent cannot guarantee that Laurel will not change the blazon later, and feels it is in the submitter's best interests to return the design now so that she can clarify the emblazon.

Name approved and forwarded to Laurel. Device returned for redraw.


OP Notes

Stephania Berat is known in the Order of Precedence as Victoria of Wintermist.

Vlad the Indifferent is currently listed in the OP as Vlad Balthori.


Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans. Dictionary of German Names. translated by Edda Gentry, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 1967, English version: 1993.

Bedingfeld, Henry and Gwynn-Jones, Peter. Heraldry. Chartwell Books, Inc. Secaucus, New Jersey. 1993.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989.

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme and Akagawa Yoshio. A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry as Used in the Society for Creative Anachronism. privately published, 1988. [PicDic]

Colm Dubh. "An Index to the Given Names in the 1291 Census of Paris", (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html)

Da'ud ibn Auda. "Arabic Names and Naming Practices." Proceedings of the Known World Heraldic Symposium 1993. SCA, Inc., 1993.

Dauzat, Albert and Rostaing, Ch. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France. 2nd ed. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1963. Guénégaud, Paris.

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986.

De Felice, Emilio. Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani. 4th ed. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Milan, 1986.

Dennys, Rodney. The Heraldic Imagination. New York: Clarkson and Potter Inc., 1976.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977.

Gruffudd, Heini. Enwau Cymraeg I Blant/Welsh Names for Children. Talybont: Y Lolfa Cyf, 1980.

Juliana de Luna. "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century." (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/MensGivenAlpha.html)

Julian Goodwyn "Brass Enscription Index", http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/)

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. 6th ed. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1985.

Morgan, T. J., and Morgan, Prys. Welsh Surnames. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985.

Morlet, M.arie-Therese. Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de l'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Siècle. 2 vols. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1968.

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990.

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. A Dictionary of English Surnames Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 3rd ed. 1995.

Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale, "Italian Renaissance Women's Names" (www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html).

Rymut, Kazimierz. Naziska Polakow. Wroclaw:Zaklad NMarodowy m. Ossolinskich-Wydawnictwo, 1991.

Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan. Carlsbad, N. M.: The Outlaw Press, 1994

Stampnitzky, Julie. "Names of Jewish Men 6th to 11th Centuries". (http://www.yucs.org/~jules/names/sixth.html and http://www.yucs.org/~jules/names/masc/avraham.html)

Talan Gwynek. "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records." Caidan Heraldic and Scribal Symposium, Upland, CA: March 1996. vol. II. pp.

Wickenden of Thanet, Paul. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Mountain View, CA: SCA Inc. - Free Trumpet Press West, 2nd ed.

Wickenden of Thanet, Paul. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Mountain View, CA: SCA Inc. - Free Trumpet Press West, 3rd ed.

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 3rd ed. 1977.


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