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Minutes of the 19 May 2002 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Jan 2003 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

The heraldry meeting schedule is 6/2, 7/28, 8/25, 9/15. Tentative dates: 10/6, 11/3, and 12/15.

This is the first meeting held at Jeanne-Marie la Croix's home, and we are very grateful for her kind offer of accomodation. Rules of the house: drink only in the living room. Please keep all food in the dining room. There is a cat present, Sammy. The green folding chair belongs to him. You should not sit in it, not for fear of the voluminous amounts of hair thereon, but because the chair will no longer bear the weight of a human.

Event reports must be created for every event at which a court is held, even when no awards are given. If submitted electronically, they should be sent to .

If you are submitting quarterly reports to your seneschal, please send a copy to Crescent. When your membership is renewed, you must send a copy of the new card to Crescent. Warrants for officers are not valid unless SCA membership is maintained.

Business for court at Coronation should be sent to Crescent at least a week before Coronation. Please specifiy which Court - stepping up, stepping down or both. Any time your group is giving a presentation, try to include a 3x5 card with the presentations that includes the group name, contact information, and a list of what is being presented.

If you are interested in being the Great Western War herald next year, please contact Crescent. You will be trained (deputy) this year. Volunteer hours from wars can be donated to the College of Heralds.


Calafia, Barony of

Bjarki Bíldr (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. If the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning.

Bjarki is found as a given name on p. 8 of Geirr Bassi and as a byname on p. 20 meaning "bear-cub".

Bíldr is found on p. 20 of Geirr Bassi, meaning "ax-blade". While Geirr Bassi shows the lower case bíldr, the submitter believes Bíldr should be acceptable. Until we get a final decision from Laurel, we are loathe to make the change.

The name was submitted as Bjarki Bildr and changed to Bjarki Bíldr to match the documented form.

NAME APPROVED AS CHANGED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Cecil of Wastelands (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name and will allow no changes to the given name. Cecil is found as a heading on p. 60 in Withycombe, where it is stated the name "was not uncommon in England in the Middle Ages".

Wastelands is an Ansteorran branch name registered in Nov. '93. The submitter wants the name Cecil of the Wastelands; however, the registered group name appears to be Wastelands without the article.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Magott of Skye (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a feminine name and if the name must be changed, she is most interested in an unspecified language/culture.

Magott is found under the heading Margaret on pp. 206-207 of Withycombe, dated in this spelling to 1273.

Skye is an island off the west coast of Scotland known for its cloud cover and bridge. Skye is found as the spelling of an entry on p. 1781 of the CLG. According to precedent [Cáel of Skey, 04/02, A-Caid]:

...the spelling Skye has only been found dated to circa 1610 (in Speed's The Counties of Britain, p. 266, map of Scotland, map drawn 1610). Johnston (p. 296 s.n. Skye) dates Skey to 1292.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Saint Artemas, College of (Calafia)

Guy Rand Gallandon (New Device)

Gyronny sable and Or, on a sun argent two swords crossed in saltire sable

Name:
Name registered in Nov. '99 via Caid.
Device:
We recommend that the submitter draw the sun slightly smaller so that the lines delineating the gyronny are easier to distinguish.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Kean de Lacy (New Badge)

[Fieldless] A fox couchant to sinister argent

Name:
Name registered in Nov. '98 via Caid.
Badge:
The submitter prefers the blazon term to sinister rather than contourny.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Summergate, Canton of (Calafia)

Typhainne d'Alixandre (New Device)

Per saltire gules and Or, two compass stars and two quill pens counterchanged

Name:
Name registered in Nov. '01 via Caid.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Darach, Shire of

Álmhath Blárnach (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a feminine name, and she will accept minor changes. She will accept major changes if she is consulted first (and has provided her phone number for explicitly this purpose). If the name must be changed she is most interested in the meaning "Alva from/of Blarney" and in the sound "AL-vah". She did not mark the box for authenticity; however, she notes that she is interested in a name appropriate for a 16th century (or so) Irish woman married to a Scottish man. The name is intended to be Irish Gaelic for "Alva from/or Blarney". The submitting herald notes "She originally suggested Almhath de Blarney, and she would accept that or Almhath of Blarney if Álmhath Blárnach is deemed unacceptable."

Álmhath is found under the heading Álmath on p. 21 of ÓC&M as the name borne by an early princess of Ulster. Álmhath would be a late period spelling, more likely to be pronounced as preferred by the submitter.

Blárnach is an adjective derived from Blárna (Blarney), a town in County Cork, Ireland. The town dates from at least the 15th century according to p. 229 of CLG and p. 700 of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1955 ed.). Direct toponymics are rare in Irish bynames but adjectives based on toponymics are not uncommon, as shown by the follwoing examples found in MacLysaght: Breathnach (p. 22, refers to Wales), Laighneach (p. 201, Leinster), Midheach (p. 211, Meath), Nuimhneach (p. 217, Munster), and Ultach (p. 292, Ulster).

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

James Weir (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will not allow major changes, but if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound. He did not check the authenticity box, but he notes that the name is intended to be for a 16th century, or so, Scottish man.

James is a given name common in England and Scotland. Withycombe dates this spelling of the name to the beginning of the 13th C on pp. 170-71.

Weir is a surname used in Scotland, possibly related to OE weir, "dam". Black pp. 806-807 dates Weire to 1504 and Weyr to 1528. The submitted form is the heading, and appears to be dated to the year 1400 in Black's comments (re. the Weirs of Blackwood, Lanarkshire).

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dun Or, Barony of

Andrew Baird (New Name and Device)

Per fess vert and azure, a bee proper and a tree eradicated argent

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name, will allow all changes, and if the name must be changed cares most about the sound.

Andrew is found as a heading on p. 23 in Black where "Andrew of the county of Dumfries" is dated to 1296.

Baird is found as a heading on pp. 42-43 of Black, where it is noted "Of Baird the son of Terri who granted the church of Anwoth and the chapel of Cardiness to the Abbey of Holywood about the middle of the twelfth century..." The dated forms include Richard Bard (before1240), Nicol Bard (1296), Duncan Barde (1296), Robert Barde (1315), and Simone Bayard (1398). It is also a heading on p. 10 in MacLysaght, "The name of a Scottish clan, derived from Gaelic bard (a bard), numerous in Antrim and Down."

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Máirgrég ingen Dubhghaill (New Name and Device)

Per pale purpure and vert, an elephant statant argent

Name:

The submitter is interested in a feminine name, will allow all changes, and if the name must be changed she cares most about the sound.

Máirgrég is listed in the heading after Márgrég on p. 134 of ÓC&M. This spelling is undated, but the authors date use of the name to the 11th C. Submitted as Máirgreg, we have added the second accent to match the documented form.

ingen is a feminine patronymic prefix "daughter of"

Dubhgaill is found under the heading Dubgall on p. 353 of Woulfe and p. 79 in ÓC&M. Submitted as ingen Dubgall, the spelling above is undated, but we have changed the byname to the lenited form found in both references.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Su of the Silver Horn (New Device)

Chevronelly sable and argent, on a chief vert a drinking horn argent

Name:
The submitter's name was registered in Mar. '78.
Device:
If this device is registered, she requests that her current device, Sable, in fess a drinking horn bendwise and a flower of four heart-shaped petals saltirewise argent, barbed vert, seeded sable, within a bordure argent surmounted by another vert, be retained as a badge.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Trystan ap Rhain (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. He will not allow major changes, and if the name must be changed he cares most about the sound "Tristan ap Rain".

Trystan is found in "An Index to the First Eleven Centuries of Peter C. Bartum's Welsh Genealogies: A.D. 300-1400" by Colm Dubh, (KWHS, Meridies, AS XXXI, June 1996) where it is dated to 430.

ap is a Welsh patronymic marker

Rhain is found in the same article as the given name, dated 430-900.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Ildhafn, Shire of

Emrys ap Tudur (Kingdom Resub Name and Device)

Per pale gules and argent, two dragons combattant and a bordure embattled counterchanged

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name, will not accept major changes, and if the name must be changed cares most about the language/culture (14th century Welsh). The name and device were originally submitted in August 2001, when the name was returned for presumption. From the submitter's appeal:

We wish to appeal this decision on the grounds that the surname "Tudur / Tudor / Tewdre" was in common usage before, during, after, and completely independent from its adoption by the Royal English House of Tudor in the 15th Century.

The text of the Caidan CoH return cited Baldwin's precedent from BoE 12/05/85, p4:

I have strong reservations about permitting either Tudor or Tudora. I'm afraid that no matter how harmless or common these may have been in period, most SCA members will see only an association with the House of Tudor, which they will perceive to be a claim "that one is a member of a royal family or is of royal birth."

However, in counter to this, we have been advised by Lady Teceangl of the more recent Grimaldi precedent from 08/01, A-Trimaris, for the submitted name Jacquetta Grimaldi:

There was some question as to whether the byname Grimaldi was used exclusively by the royal family of Monaco. Maridonna Benvenuti found examples of the byname Grimaldi used by people who do not seem to be of the royal family in Gerhard Rohlfs' 'Dizionaro dei Cognomi e Soprannomi'. Given these examples, the byname Grimaldi is registerable.

We are also aware of several other related precedents on rejecting Royal presumption:

• submissions for Myfanwy Gwynedd:

the evidence indicates that the usage 'given name + kingdom name' is regularly used in Welsh to indicate a member of the ruling family of that kingdom, e.g. Owain Gwynedd. LoAR 14/06/87, p.6

However, more recent research (partic. Morgan & Morgan p.118 s. n. Gwynedd) has provided evidence of use of this byname by non-royals. As such, we are overturning that precedent and registering this name 08/01, A-Meridies

• of Windsor, from Da'ud ibn Auda's 1st tenure:

As the locative is that of a place of England from which a number of people could be, and only comparatively recently adopted as a dynastic name, it is not seen as presumptuous to the ruling family of England LoAR 06/91, p.13

We note that the Caid return does not deny that "Tudor", or variants thereof, were in common usage by non-Royal Welsh families at the time.

R&W, under the heading <Tudor>, p.456, dates the following variants:

'Tudor' 1221Shropshire Assize roll
'David ap Tudir' 1287Cheshire Assize roll
'Tudur ap Llywelyn' 1391, and 

From the SCA publication The Complete Anachronist #66 (A Welsh Miscellany) pp. 28-30 (and R&W p. lii of the introduction) states that later-period surnames were derived from earlier period patronymics.

Mistress Tangwystyl's articles, webbed at: www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/education.html#wales (as endorsed by Laurel, are no-copy-required) verify Tudor as a name in common use in 13th Century Wales.

We also enclose the Tudor excerpts from Alison Weir's "Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy". From these we find the royal male names used from Henry VII to Elizabeth I (including the children dying near birth and bastard sons) are:

Arthur, Henry, Edmund, Edward, Roland, John, Thomas.

Although keen to show identity with the English people (by adopting the Welsh byname of Tudor) the dynasty never extended this to the children's first names - retaining the traditional Anglo-Norman dynastic names. Aside from Arthur, the mythical British king, the nearest to a Welsh name would be Henry VII's grandfather - Owen Tudor.

In summary then, we would appeal this return based on the following:

  • R&W cite examples of the name "Tudor" (or variants) as both a personal name and patronymic found in the 13th and 14th century, well before the 15th century English royal dynasty
  • the royal Tudor dynasty never adopted any further Welsh names, aside from the by-name, whereas our submitted name is comprised of two distinct Welsh elements, with Welsh spelling, rather than in the anglicized form.
  • the more recent Laurel precedent (2001) regarding the name "Grimaldi", a well known European royal family. Other precedents relating to Royal lands or domains are treated similarly.

We would thus argue the case that the Baldwin Precedent of 1985 has been superceded by more recent Laurel Precedents, and that this treatment of dynastic names reflects regular period practice, not just a special treatment of the English Tudor family.

Submitted as Emrys Tudur, we have added the Welsh patronymic marker ap to create a true patronymic rather than a hereditary surname. This change was made upon consultation with the submitter.

We herewith forward this to Laurel with the Caidan College's full endorsement.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Jardine Mac Enlea (New Name and Device)

Argent, in pale a thistle proper, issuant from a tower sable, and a base engrailed azure

Name:

The submitter wants a masculine name authentic for "16th C. Scottish" and will accept all changes. If the name must be changed he cares most about the meaning "the Gaelic version of the name meaning 'Jardine, of the mac-en-leah clan'" and culture "16th century Scottish".

Jardine is found as a given name in G. Fraser, The Steel Bonnets in a footnote on p.167 "An entry in the Scottish Privy Council's Register for 15th Nov, 1571 mentions that a John Graham of Canonby attacked one Jardine of Applegirth." It is also found in R. Bain, The Clans and Tartans of Scotland on p.74 where it states "The Cummings of Culter traced their descent from Jardine Comyn, son of the Earl of Buchan in the 13th century."

mac en Leah is a variant of the Gaelic mac en Leigh, Anglicized as MacLeay, indicative of the profession of physicians. It is found on p.136 in Bain where it states:

The Livingstones of Argyll claim to be descended from a physician to the Lord of the Isles Mac-an-leigh - son of the physician - being Englished as Livingstone.

It is also found in Sir T. Innes, The Tartans of the Clans and Families of Scotland on p.165:

What have been termed the "Highland Livingstones" have quite a different origin. A member of this section of the Livingstones is called in Gaelic Mac-an-leigh, "son of the physician".... The 'Mac-an-leighs' of Appin, who were followers of the Stewarts of Appin, Englished their name as Livingstone.

Under the heading Mac an Leaga, MacLysaght lists the undated forms M'Enlawe, M'Enlay, M'Enley, and M'Enlea.

Submitted as Jardine Mac en Leah, we changed it to the closest form found in Woulfe, Jardine Mac Enlea.

Device:
The submitter is advised to draw fewer engrailings, making them larger and deeper.

NAME (AS CHANGED) AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Lyondemere, Barony of

Emma Wolvyne (New Name and Device)

Per pale Or and sable, a brown leaf proper and an increscent Or, on a chief azure three acorns argent

Name:

The submitter is interested in a feminine name and will allow all necessary changes. If changes must be made, she cares most about language/culture, which she wishes to be authentic for 12th-14th C Middle English.

Emma is found as a heading on p.103 of Withycombe dated to 1219, 1316 and 1401. Emma is also found in a list of Women's Names at "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272" by Nicolaa de Bracton: (http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/women.html).

Under the heading Woolven on p. 502, R&W cite William Wulwyne 1296 and John Wolvyne 1328. R&W note that this is from the OE, Wulfwine 'wolf-friend'. While not specifically named, Wolvwyne might be a plausible intermediate spelling between the two documented cases.

Submitted as Emma Wolvwyne, the name was changed to the documented form Emma Wolvyne.

Device:
Precedent states "[returning a brown oak leave proper] This is an unwarranted extension of the concept of "brown {charges} proper" (Thorvald Ingvarsson, 3/98 p. 23).

NAME (AS CHANGED) APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR USING A BROWN LEAF PROPER

Emma Wulfwinedoghter (New Alternate Name for Emma Wolvyne)

Name:

The submitter will allow all necessary changes. If changes must be made, she cares most about the language/culture. She wishes the name to be authentic for 7th-11th C Anglo-Saxon.

Emma is found as a heading on p.103 of Withycombe dated to 1219, 1316 and 1401, where it states:

The name was introduced into England by Emma, daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, who married (1) 1002 King Ethelred the Unready and (2) 1017 King Cnut.

It is also noted that Emma "was common from the 11th C onwards."

Wulfwin is found in the list of Men's Names at "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272" by Nicolaa de Bracton: (http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/men.html). Searle lists Wulfwine several times, including citations dated to 999, 1017, and 1050. Wulfwinedoghter is an attempt at a patronymic constructed from this given name based on p. xxi in R&W.

Submitted as Emma Wulfwinesdoghter, the name was changed to Emma Wulfwinedoghter in order to closer match the available evidence.

NAME (AS CHANGED) APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Franchesca MacBeth (New Name and Device)

Vert, in fess three strait trumpets palewise surmounted by a bar couped Or and a base embattled argent masoned sable

Name:

The submitter is interested in a feminine name authentic for 15th-16th C Scots. She will not allow major or minor changes, but will allow the formation of a holding name.

The client's given name is acceptable under the mundane name allowance. She provides a photocopy of her driver's license proving her mundane name is Franchesca Ryan. Though it lacks the letter h, Withycombe mentions "the earliest record of the name Francesca seems to be Francesca da Rimini (died about 1288);" under the heading Frances on p. 120.

Macbeth is a heading found on p. 458 in Black, with the note:

Macbeth (1005-1057), mormaer of Moray, became king of Scots after having murdered King Duncan I at Bothnagowan near Elgin, 14th August 1040.

MacLysaght shows Mac Beth as a heading on p. 17. Under the heading Mac Beata on pp. 321-322, Woulfe has MacBeth, "son of Macbeth". R&W list MacBeath, Macbeth as a heading on p. 290, calling it "An old Gaelic personal name". We are in a minor quandary over the byname. Submitted as MacBeth, we found evidence for the byname with a space and capitalization, or with neither the space nor capitalization. Upon further consultation, the submitter would prefer Macbeth if the submitted form is not acceptable, even though her forms indicate no changes.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Nordwache, Barony of

Ævarr inn viðf{o,}rli (New Name and Device)

Azure, a dolphin and on a chief wavy argent the Norse runes tyr, urus, sig, isa, and isa sable

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name authentic for Viking culture. He will not allow major changes, and will not allow the formation of a holding name. If the name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning "Ævarr far-traveled".

Ævarr is found as a given name on p. 17 of Geirr Bassi.

inn viðf{o,}rli is found on p. 29 of Geirr Bassi as an epithet meaning "far-traveled".

Device:

The herald (or submitter) includes previous submissions as documentation for the use of Norse runes in SCA devices:

  • Gareth de Bailli: Azure, a Saxon feogh rune between two bars Or. [Apr. '97 - Outlands]
  • Dierdre Breffsdottir: Argent, a "dag" rune azure between in pale two red roses barbed and seeded proper. [Aug. '79]
  • Eric Thorgrimsson: Or, an axe vert, hafted within the odal rune sable. [Aug. '81 - Ansteorra]

We also note the following registrations:

  • Beornwulf the Belligerent: Sable, a beorc rune within a serpent involved head to base argent. [Jul. '97 - East]
  • Erik Erikson the Scout: Vert, a bend invected argent between a sun in his splendor and a tir rune Or. [May '92 - Middle]
  • James Cunningham: Per pale argent and Or, a Norse Hagall rune gules, overall an arrow inverted sable. [Jan. '01 - Middle)]

For entire words in armory, we note:

  • Miriam bat Shimeon: Gules, on a fess between three candles argent flammant proper the Hebrew word "chai" azure. [Jun. '96 - West]

We note that there are also many examples of words and phrases in the Ordinary, most in Latin or Arabic. We have no idea what tusii means, though our Norwegian dictionary lists tusse meaning "gnome, goblin, sprite".

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL (DEVICE?)


Starkhafn, Barony of

Albrecht von Kallenberg (New Name)

Name:

The submitter wishes a masculine name authentic for 15th Century Germanic language and culture and allows all changes.

Albrecht occurs 16 times in Talan Gwynek's "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm). It is also dated to 1271 as a heading on p. 10 in Bahlow.

von is a German locative meaning "of, from".

Kallenberg is a German city documented in Brechenmacher v. II, p. 6, with the use as a surname dated to 1316. In addition, it is found undated under the heading Kallenbach on p. 283 in Bahlow/Gentry.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Brighid Mhor inghean uí Fhlaithbertaig (Kingdom Resub Device)

Argent, an escarbuncle sable and a gore

Name:
The name passed Caid in April 2002.
Device:
The previous device submission Argent, an escarbuncle and on a gore sable a Chihuahua sejant erect contourny Or was returned for having a charged gore. As the gore is no longer charged, this device is permissible.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Lucius of Alexandria (New Name and Device)

Sable, an ankh surmounted by three barrulets between in chief two mullets of six points Or

Name:

The submitter desires a masculine name authentic for 600 AD Roman or Greek language. He has not checked any other boxes and allows minor and major changes.

Lucius is a Roman name dated to the 4th C BCE. Lemprière lists many Romans with that name on p. 336, and the author indicates that it is a common praenomen.

Alexandria is a Mediterranean city in the north of Egypt, and is dated by Lemprière, p. 33, to 332 BCE.

Device:
The device is being returned for a redraw. The device was not drawn on the correct form. The color Or is too orange. The three barrulets are too small to be of heraldic importance, and no documentation was provided that this arrangement is compatible with period heraldic style.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR REDRAW

Valeria Tertia of Alexandria (New Name)

Name:

The submitter wishes her name to be authentic for a Roman woman of the 1st Century AD.

Valeria is a common Roman feminine name, found undated on p. 651 in Lemprière, but contemporary to various Roman emperors.

Tertia is a common Roman feminine name (meaning third daughter). On p. 615, Lemprière lists a sister of Brutus who married Cassius, and was known variously as Junia, Tertulla, and Tertia.

There is a discussion of the formation of Roman feminine names on p. xx of Withycombe where the author notes that women usually had a single name plus their father's or husband's gens. After the formation of the Empire, two names were still used but these were either the father's nomen and cognomen put into the feminine form (e.g. Aemilia Lepida), or their father's nomen plus that of their mother (e.g. Valeria Sextina). We therefore believe that the submitted name is correctly formed, with the first name deriving from her father Valerius, and the second from her mother Tertia.

According to p. 33 of Lemprière, Alexandria is a city in Egypt that was founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Wintermist, Shire of

Kýlan Magnússon (New Name)

Name:

The submitter is interested in a masculine name. If the name must be changed, he cares most about an unspecified language/culture, but he will not accept major changes.

Kýlan is found as a given name on p. 13 of Geirr Bassi.

Magnus is found on p. 203 in Withycombe, dated to 1100 AD. Magnús is found on p.13 in Geirr Bassi. Magnússon is a patronymic formed according to the guidelines on p. 17 of Geirr Bassi.

Submitted as Kylan Magnusson, the name was changed to Kýlan Magnússon to form a name with spelling and punctuation consistent with Norse naming practices.

NAME APPROVED AS CHANGED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Bibliography

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Bain, Richard. The Clans and Tartans of Scotland., Glasgow: Collins, third reprint, 1978.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library, 1946. Ninth printing, 1989.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Woerterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen. Limburg a.d. Lahn: C.A. Starke Verlag, 1957-1960.

Colm Dubh. "An Index to the First Eleven Centuries of Peter C. Bartum's Welsh Genealogies: A.D. 300-1400." (KWHS, Meridies, AS XXXI, June 1996)

Fraser, George MacDonald. The Steel Bonnets. London: Harper Collins, 1971.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica, 1977.

Innes of Learney, Sir Thomas. The Tartans of the Clans and Families of Scotland. Edinburgh: Johnston & Bacon.

Jones, Heather Rose. "A Welsh Miscellany," The Compleat Anachronist, No. 66. Milpitas, CA: Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. 1993.

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. 6th ed. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1985.

Nicolaa de Bracton. "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272." (http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/women.html).

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, and Maguire, Fidelma. Gaelic Personal Names. Dublin: The Academy Press, 1981.

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Searle, William George. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. 1897. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,. Facsimile ed. 1969.

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Wright, F. A. Lempriére's Classical Dictionary. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 3rd. ed. 1984.


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