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Minutes of the 6 May 2001 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Feb 2002 LoAR; Thomas Ravenwood of Western Seas' pended item is on the Aug 2002 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

The meeting started at 11:11.

Future meeting dates are 10 June, 8 July, and 19 August.

Crescent noted that Potrero War is coming soon; the local herald, Thomas Brownwell, would appreciate assistance.

Crescent is seeking volunteers to write the Trumpet's Voice column in the Crown Prints; there is someone who is willing to do this, but a volunteer.

Crescent is considering the designation of a submissions herald, who would be responsible for converting the notes of the meeting into the minutes and the letter of intent. If you are interested, contact Crescent.

Territorial heralds are asked to remind their principals (barons, baronesses, seneschals, ...) of the need to get court business to Crescent in writing (including email) a week before the event.

Jeanne-Marie notes that Heatherwyne Anniversary is the day before the June meeting; she has crash space available for members of the College who wish to attend the event and stay over for the College meeting.

Dietmar noted that the College of Saint Gabriel is looking for active members of all skill levels.

Free Trumpet Press has announced that the 27th update to the Ordinary and Armorial is available.

Dame Elspeth's precedents are now updated through January 2001, and are available at the same URL as before.

Caid herald's web site is under reconstruction. Only staff who have given specific permission in writing will have any personal information (beyond the SCA name only) included. Provide permission to Morgan.

Field heralds are needed for Altavia Anniversary.

James of the Lake has obtained a copy of A.H. Smith's English Place-Name Elements; this is a common source for advanced research, and its addition to the available resources is welcome.

The recent Laurel letters returned several name submissions because the supporting documentation was not adequately summarized in the letter of intent. It is not sufficient to merely state that a name element is found at a particular place in a particular reference; what the reference says about the name must be summarized on the LoI. Submitted documentation should conform to this, as must notes in the minutes of the College.

The Order of the Gilded Antelope was returned for lack of evidence that the order name was formed in a period manner. It is not sufficient to show that the name elements are period; it must also be shown that the order name is formed in a period manner.


Altavia, Barony of

Artemisia Seréna (Kingdom Resub Name, Device released from Pend)

Vert, a seafox erect guardant between in chief two pots argent

Name:
Artemisia was used by the famous Italian painter Artemisia Gentileschi (1590-?1642), found in (Webster's Biographical, page 584), under her surname. The name dates back to ancient Greece (Lempriere, page 83) who states that she is mentioned in Herodotus and dates to the 4th C BCE. The submitter includes St Gabriel report #1782, which discusses this name as well. Seréna is an Italian name from (de Felice, "Cognomi", page 231) under Seréni. It is derived from the Latin word "serenus" = "serene".
Device:
Device was previously checked then pended for lack of name. We are releasing the pend and forwarding it to Laurel.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Angels, Barony of

Antonio lo Seccante, detto Secca (New Name and Device)

Gules, an oak tree fructed Or issuant from a mount vert

[CRESCENT notes that no discussion was entered in the minutes]

Antonio lo Seccante, detto Secca (New Badge)

[CRESCENT notes that no discussion was entered in the minutes]


Calafia, Barony of

Cellach mac Ualraig (New device)

Or, a bear rampant sable, on a chief argent fimbriated gules three thistles proper

Name:
Name registered in October 2000.
Device:

The submitter intends that if this device is registered, his previous device be released.

It is not permissible under the Society's rules to fimbriate a chief. Laurel precedent (Laurel Alison, Dec 86 and Aug 88) however this is blazoned, in appearance it includes a fimbriated chief, which is not permitted for Society usage. RFS VIII.3 limits fimbiration to simple geometric charges placed in the center of the field; while a chief is a simple geometric charge, it is not in the center of the field.

DEVICE RETURNED FOR STYLE

Kameelah Xahar ba Lenge (New name)

Name:

Submitter considers Kamilah an acceptable alternate spelling of the submitted Kameelah. She considers the name to be a Moslem name meaning perfect. The Dictionary of Muslim Names

Submitter believes the byname Xahar ba Lenge to be a Persian byname meaning sister with half a load, based on the words sister and with from the English-Persion section, and lenge from the Persian-English section from Lambton, Persian Dictionary.

Since submitter does not provide, and the College was not able to provide, any evidence that Xahar ba Lenge (sister with half a load) is formed in a manner consistent with period practice in Persian, this name must be returned.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Quin Phelan (Kingdom Resub Device)

Azure, a wolf's head caboshed within three feathers in annulo, on a bordure argent six grenages gules enflamed Or

Name:
Quin Phelan was forwarded to Laurel on the April 4, 2001 LoI.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Uaine Tannian (New Name)

Name:

Submitted as Uaine inghean Tannian

Uaine is found in (OCM, page 174). inghean is the Irish feminine patronymic. We have dropped this element after consultation with the submitter by phone, as it is incompatible with the Anglicized surname. Tannian is found in (Maclysaght, page 283), derived from the Gaelic name O'Tanaidheain.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

B{o,}ðvarr bani (New Name)

Name:
B{o,}ðvarr is found in (Geirr Bassi, page 9), and bani is a Norse epithet meaning "slayer", found in a side-by-side translation of the Old Norse poem Havamal, verse 73: "Tveir ro eins herjar tunga er höfu{eth}s bani" = "Two men are the destroyers of one: the tongue is the head's slayer". This meaning is confirmed in (Gordon, "An Introduction to Old Norse", page 334), where "bani" = "death, cause of death, slayer". While we cannot find this adjective alone in (Geirr Bassi, pages 20 and 27), we find the epithets "berserkjabani" = "berserks bane" (= "berserker slayer") and "selsbani" = "seal's bane" (= "seal slayer"). In addition Geirr Bassi documents the epithetical prefix "flugu" = "murderer" which shows the general use of a similar byname.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dun Or, Barony of

Aurora Aquila Danaellus (New Name)

Name:
Aurora is an English name derived from the name of the Roman goddess of the dawn. Its occasional use in Renaissance England is attested in (Withycombe, page 37). It is also found in (DeFelice, "Nomi", page 82), where he says it is "un nome affettivo e augurale medievale formato da aurora", in which we presume the author dates the name to medieval origin. Aquila is also found in (Withycombe, page 29), dated to 1633 in Sussex, and in (deFelice, "Nomi", page 71), where he says "... il culto di santi e sante cosi denominati, in particolare de Sant' Aquila martire a Roma con la moglie Priscilla". Danaellus is found in (Melcon, section 158, page 172), used in Spain, undated. Melcon shows this name as derived from Danaielliz, dated to 1058. We believe that this name is reasonably constructed for a woman born in either Italy or England to a Spanish father.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Fáelán mac Cathail (New device)

Per pale vert and gules, a wolf passant and in chief three crescents argent

Name:
The name was approved by the Caidan College in January 2001.
Device:
There was some discussion of the specific color used to represent the gules field; with the specific concern that the color may be too orange to be acceptable. After discussion, it was decided that the color, while an orange-red, is an acceptable representation of gules.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Cedric Myles Madoc: House of the White Aurochs (New Household Name and Badge)

Vert, a bull's head caboshed and a gore sinister argent

Name:

Submitted as House of the White Auroch

Cedric Myles Madoc was registered by Laurel in June '92. White is found in this spelling under definition 3 in the (OED, page 3764), and dates to 1550 with the modern meaning of the color white. Aurochs is also found in the (OED, page 142) which states that it is the obsolete spelling of "aurochse", derived from the Middle High German "ur-ochse" and the Old High German "ur-ohso" = "Urus Ox", a species of European ox which went extinct in the 17th C. The name "Urus" was used by Caesar. While the word is not dated in the submitted spelling, the OED attests that it was in use (not always correctly) in Early Modern German (we presume contemporary with Tudor English). This household name follows the same pattern as the inn signs "White Bull", "White Horse", etc. from (Colm Dubh, "English Inn & Tavern Names of the Middle Ages", KWHS AS XXXIII, page 169).

Badge:
No conflicts found.

NAME AND BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Kevin Daniel Madoc (New Name)

Name:
Kevin is found in (Withycombe, page 189) as the header spelling, and is the Anglicized spelling of the Irish name Caomhghin. Daniel is found in (ibid, page 78) as the header spelling, and was in common use in England since the 13th C. Madoc is found as a surname in (Reaney, page 293) under Maddock, and is dated in the submitted spelling to 1274.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Lyondemere, Barony of

Garrett O'Doherty (Resub kingdom badge)

Per fess azure and argent, a compass star within a bordure counterchanged

Name:
Name registered by Laurel in March 1998.
Badge:
This is technically clear of Ælfwyne Wídfara, Jul 90, Per bend sinister azure and argent a compass star within a bordure counterchanged by X.4.a and d (giving CDs for the change to the field, compass star, and bordure). However, the strong visual resemblence causes us considerable concern, and this may be returnable under X.5; we are requesting a visual comparison.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Konrad von Marburg (Name Resub Kingdom)

Gules, a wolf's head erased, on a chief Or three fleurs-de-lis sable

Name:

The submitter's previous name submission, Conrad von Würzburg was returned at the College's April meeting. [for conflict]

Submitter notes that Konrad is found in the late 15th century, noted in Pastoureau, p. 63, where a set of arms are identified as belonging to Konrad Grünenberg dating from the late 15th century. Bahlow/Gentry notes that Konrad (which is a header spelling is the Latin documentary form of the old German royal name Kunrad.

Marburg is a town in Germany, which has been in existance since medieval times. Submitter notes, based on Earl Steinbicker, Daytrips Germany (Mamaroneck, NJ: Hastings House), that the Colloquy of Marburg was held in 1529, thus implying that the name of the town was Marburg in period. The town name is also found in Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer, also known as Marburg an der Lahn; the town was known in the 12th century.

It is reasonably clear that the name is period, as Konrad von Marburg is found in Webster's Biographical Dictionary, where he is noted as being a Papal inquisitor and German priest, murdered near Marburg in 1233.

Device:
We note for the submitter's future reference that the chief should be drawn wider (nominally about a third of the field).

NAME RETURNED FOR CONFLICT
DEVICE PENDED FOR LACK OF NAME


Southron Gaard, Barony of

Southron Gaard: L'Ordre du Coeur Loyal (Laurel Appeal Order Name)

Name:
Southron Gaard was registered by Laurel in December '83. L'Ordre du Coeur Loyal was returned by Laurel for lack of documentation in May '00. We note that L'Order du is French for "The Order of", and was commonly used in medieval France. Coeur Loyal is French for "Loyal Heart". We are unclear what Laurel's objection to the original submission was, so we will cover several possibilities. First, we note the use of the surname Lionheart, whose medieval Norman French cognate was Coeur de Lion found in (Webster's, page 1256), dated to 1157. This shows the use of the word "heart" in its non-concrete meaning, as applied to a name. Second, we would bring to Laurel's attention (T. Robson, "The British Herald", Summary of Order Names, compiled by Alexander Ravenscroft) wherein Robson attests that: the French Order of Peace was established in 1229 a.d.; the joint English-French Order of the Passion of Christ was est. in 1380; the Order of Silence (a.k.a. Cyprus), est. about 1200; the Order of Christian Charity, est. by Henry III; This clearly shows the use of non-concrete nouns in the purpose of period Order names. In particular, these show the use of emotions or states of being along with adjectival descriptives used in the formation of period order names. Finally, we find in the (OED, page 1274) that under the 6th definition "heart", it is described as "the seat of one's inmost thoughts and secret feelings; one's inmost being; the depth of the soul; the spirit." This meaning dates back to the 10th C. So, to recap -- the heart is the seat of emotion, not a concrete object; emotions and other states of being are not uncommon as order names; and finally "Coeur" is a well-recognized element of period names. We therefore believe that the submitted order name is appropriately formed.

ORDER NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Western Seas, Barony of

Annora verch Llwyd Bryneirian (New Device)

Azure, five crosses bottany and a bordure engrailed argent

Name:
Annora verch Llwyd Bryneirian was registered by Laurel May '00.
Device:
The submitter did not sign any of the submission forms. ***Crescent*** obtain signatures?

DEVICE PENDED UNTIL SIGNATURE RECEIVED

Antonia de Galicia (Device Resub kingdom)

Gules, three annulets, one and two, Or, and on a base pointed argent a columbine flower azure

Name:
Name registered February 1996
Device:
Device appears acceptable, but is pended for transcription to new forms (with signature) or Laurel waiver of the old forms.

DEVICE PENDED AS NOTED

Cathalin Nclean (New Name and Device)

Per chevron azure and argent, a tyger argent and a stag's massacre proper

Name:
We are unable to document the surname Nclean and suspect that it is a modern invention.
Device:
There is no "proper" tincture for a stag's massacre, so this must be returned for unidentifiable tincture of the horns (Da'ud Precedents 2.2, LoAR 6/95, pg. 22).

NAME AND DEVICE RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Dubh Easa inghean uí hÉaluighthe (New Name and Device)

Argent, a bird displayed head to sinister sable maintaining in its dexter claw a sword and in its sinister claw a bow and a bordure azure ermined argent

Name:

Submitted as Dubheasa hÉalaighthe

Dubh Easa is found in (OCM, page 78) and is dated to before the 13th C. We were unable to document the single word form of the prenom without significantly changing the spelling so have opted to this less invasive change. We have added the feminine clan patronymic inghean uí. hÉalaighthe is derived from the masculine name Élodach/Élatach found in (OCM, page 85). We found the clan name O' hÉaluighthe in (Woulfe, page 561). Unfortunately, the addition of the patronymic is a "Major Change", which the submitter will not allow.

Device:
We found two non-SCA conflicts: (Manfred, King of Sicily, Argent an eagle displayed sable) and (Prussia, Argent, an eagle displayed crowned Or). There is no significant difference between this bird and an eagle displayed. The addition of the charged border supplies only one visual difference.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION
DEVICE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT

Gustav of Castle North (New Name and Device)

Sable, on a pale argent between two swords a tree eradicated proper

Name:

Gustav is found as a given name under the Latin form Gustavus in Withycombe. It is also found in Seibicke page 247-8, under Gustav, with Gustav Adolf, King of Sweden, dated to 1594-1632 as an example.

Castle North is an SCA branch name, registered Apr 1983.

Device:
Unfortunately, this conflicts with Sable, on a pale argent between two rapiers proper, a stag's antler vert (Outlands, Kingdom of the, 8904O (For the Order of the White Scarf of the Outlands), and Sable, on a pale argent between two rapiers, guards to center, proper, in chief a mullet of five greater and five lesser points sable (Order of the White Scarf of Ansteorra).

NAME APPEARS ACCEPTABLE, BUT IS PENDED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE CORRECTION (SUBMITTED ON OLD FORMS)
DEVICE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT

Herold von Insel (New Name and Device)

Or, on an escutcheon sable a lizard tergient argent, all within a bordure dancetty gules

Name:

Submitted as Harold von Inseln

We have changed Harold to the German form Herold, found in (Bahlow, page 241), dated to 1323. von is the German locative preposition. Insel is a town in Germany, found in (Bahlow, page 270) under Inselmann. Bahlow asserts that Insel is a town near Soltau or Stendal. He does not date the name.

Device:
Device form is unsigned.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR LACK OF SIGNATURE

Justin Eachus (New Name)

Name:
Justin is found in (Withycombe, page 185) and dates to 1639. Eachus was found in ("Cheshire Wills", http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/blangston/chswills [NOTE: Site now at http://www.fhsc.org.uk/wills/index.htm]), which documents that one William Eachus recorded his will in the year 1672. The name apparently derives from the name of a field, Eachus Plan, whose name predates 1600 according to (Cottle, "Penguin Dictionary of Surnames", 1984, page ???). Unfortunately, we find the presented documentation incomplete and unconvincing and would like to see evidence for the name closer to the date 1600.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Khalila al-Nasiriniyya (Name and Device Resub Laurel)

Azure, a bend sinister rayonny on the upper edge between a tyger salient contourny and a equal armed cross couped Or

Name:

This is a rework of the name Kalila Janan al-Nasrin, returned by Laurel at her meeting of 20 July 1996, which said (in part) Assuming supporting documentation for Nasrin [as a place name] can be found, 'Khalila al-Nasriniyya' would be appropriately constructed.

Khalila is a feminine form of Khalil, which the submitter documents from Gandhi and Husain, The Complete Book of Muslim and Parsi Names, where it is shown in a list of given names, giving as examples of persons bearing the name the man to whom the first Arabic dictionary is ascribed; and a member of the Turki dynasty in 1378.

al-Nasiriniyya is locative byname, based on the hypothetical place name Nasrin. The submitter notes that the word Nasrin is the name of several flowers (two species of rose, rosa glandulifera and rosa alba; and a jonquil), according to Gandhi and Husain, op. cit.. The place name Nasirin is constructed, based on the examples Homs, Tus, and Tiz (found on a map from Atlas of World) which words are found in Gandhi and Husain, op. cit. as meaning the ephedra plant (among other meanings); new leaf or young grass (spelled Tizh); and a white mulberry. This appears to substantiate that this made up place name is formed in accordance with period practice for place names (per RFS II.2).

Device:
A similar device, with the tyger blazoned as sejant was returned for redraw by Laurel at the same time the name was returned, saying that the tyger blurred the lines between (natural) tigers (heraldic) tygers, and lions. This redraw corrects the problem.

NAME AND DEVICE PENDED FOR ADMINISTRATION (TRANSCRIPTION TO NEW FORMS OR PERMISSION FROM LAUREL TO USE THE OLD FORMS)

Maria de las Islas (New Name and Device)

Argent, on an escutcheon gules three hearts, points to center Or, all within a bordure indented sable

Name:
Maria is a Spanish name from (Melcon; Talan Gwynek "Glossary of Given Names", page 131 of KWHS A.S. XXVIII), and dated to 925. de las is the plural feminine prepositional locative in Spanish. Islas is the plural of "isla", a feminine noun meaning "Islands" (Collins, "Spanish-English / English-Spanish Dictionary", page 287).
Device:
The presence of the hearts on the escutcheon violates RFS XI.4.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR PRETENSE

Mikhail Darm'ianovich (New Name and Device)

Argent, a chevron embattled sable between three double-headed eagles gules

Name:

Mikhail is stated to be a Russification of Michael, documented as a given name to 1262-3 in Wickenden of Thanet, 3rd ed., p. 211.

Darm'ianovich is a patronymic, based on the given name Dam'ian, a masculine given name dated to 1596 by Wickenden of Thanet; the formation of the patronymic with -ovich is documented on page xxi, noting that it is the modern form and while it is found in period, it is the exception rather than the rule. On page xxiii, the discussion would appear to indicate that this form was popular in certain regions (Novgorod and Pskov), but by the 16th and 17th centuries this form was becoming restricted to the upper classes.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Orion Blackthorne (New Name and Device)

Or, a pale purpure overall a phoenix rising from a chalice and a bordure counterchanged

Name:

Submitter will not accept major changes.

The College was unable to find evidence supporting the use of Orion a given name of a human being in period. Accounts of the individual from Greek mythology for whom the constellation is named differ somewhat as to whether he was human or not; Bullfinch indicates that Orion was a giant and son of a god, Lemprière shows a number of variations, one of which would appear to make him human but the majority of which do not.

The surname Blackthorn, Blackthorne is found as a header spelling in Reaney and Wilson, p. 47. The dated period spellings are de Blakethorn, Blakthorn, and Blakethorn. Since the submitter's preferred spelling is a header spelling, we are forwarding the name in that spelling, although we are not able to date that specific spelling.

The name Blackthorne could also be constructed from elements found in Smith's English Place Name Elements which appears to support the surname form, and is found specifically as a place name on page 47 of Ekwall in the spelling Blackthorn. Separately, Thorne is found as a header spelling on page 467 (of Ekwall; several of the dated versions show a terminal e (in the form Torne, e.g. from the Domesday book). This appears to make the name a plausible variant spelling as a locative, and hence as a locative surname.

Device:
Laurel precedent of April 2000 indicates that a complex charge may not be counterchanged across an ordinary (the specific case involved A pale or surmounted by a bridge ... counterchanged). This reaffirmed what Laurel referred to as long standing precedent.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION
DEVICE RETURNED FOR IDENTIFIABILITY (PER LAUREL PRECEDENT)

Rioghnach Athdara (New Name and Device)

Sable, on a plate a tree proper, on a chief argent three lion's heads erased azure

Name:
Rioghnach is found in (OCM, page 156). There were two Irish saints who bore this name. Athdara is attested to mean "oak grove", but the submitter has supplied no documentation to support that assertion.
Device:
This device was not conflict checked, and is being returned for reasons of time constraint.

NAME AND DEVICE RETURNED FOR LACK OF SIGNATURE

Rosamond de Crèvecoeur (New name)

Name:

Rosamond is a feminine given name used by the Normans, according to Withycombe, p. 258, dated to 1282.

de Crèvecoeur is a locative byname based on a place name in Normandy (found in Dauzat, p. 162, Reaney and Wilson, p. 115, and Columbia Lippincott Gazatteer, none of which date the name).

THE NAME APPEARS ACCEPTABLE, BUT MUST BE PENDED AS IT IS ON THE OLD FORMS

Tighearnach Cathán Athdara (New Name and Device)

Sable, on a bezant a tree eradicated proper, and on a chief Or three stag's heads erased

Name:

Submitted as Tighearnach Cathawn Athdara

This name is Irish. Tighearnach is found in (OCM, page 170), dated to 1200's. Cathán is found in (OCM, page 47). Athdara is attested to mean "oak grove", but the submitter has supplied no documentation to support that assertion. We note that the use of two given names is unusual and uncommon in early Ireland.

Device:
This device was not conflict checked, and is being returned for reasons of time constraint.

NAME AND DEVICE RETURNED FOR LACK OF SIGNATURE

Thomas Ravenwood of Western Seas (New Name and Device)

Sable, a bend sinister between two grenades overall a sword proper, a bordure Or

Name:

Thomas is found as a masculine given name in Withycombe, p. 279-280, specifically Thomas in the Domesday Book, dated 1086.

Ravenwood is a constructed byname, based on the elements Raven and Wood, both based on entries in Reaney and Wilson. Submitter notes the surnames Ravenhill and Ravenshaw specifically (pp 372-373), and Broadwood (p. 66), Blackwood (p. 47), Hazelwood (p. 224) and, of most direct relevance, Hawkwood (p. 222; the specific spellings are de Haukwode, 1343, and de Hawkwod in 1351). We also note Ekwall's reference to Ravensthorpe.

Western Seas is an SCA Barony in which the submitter resides.

Device:
The submitter is advised to feed the bordure, which is noticably too skinny.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Uta Blackthorne (New Name and Device)

Purpure, a pale Or, overall a winged sea-horse erect contourny counterchanged

Name:

Bahlow shows Uta as a variant spelling under the header Ute. Drowsdowski also shows Uta as a variant spelling of the given name Ute (which is the header spelling), common by the 12th century, and dates Uta von Meißen as a Markgräfin living in the 11th century.

The surname Blackthorn, Blackthorne is found as a header spelling in Reaney and Wilson, p. 47. The dated period spellings are de Blakethorn, Blakthorn, and Blakethorn. Since the submitter's preferred spelling is a header spelling, we are forwarding the name in that spelling, although we are not able to date that specific spelling.

The name Blackthorne could also be constructed from elements found in Smith's English Place Name Elements which appears to support the surname form, and is found specifically as a place name on page 47 of Ekwall in the spelling Blackthorn. Separately, Thorne is found as a header spelling on page 467 (of Ekwall; several of the dated versions show a terminal e (in the form Torne, e.g. from the Domesday book). This appears to make the name a plausible variant spelling as a locative, and hence as a locative surname.

Device:
Laurel precedent of April 2000 indicates that a complex charge may not be counterchanged across an ordinary (the specific case involved A pale or surmounted by a bridge ... counterchanged). This reaffirmed what Laurel referred to as long standing precedent.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR STYLE


Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans (1967). Dictionary of German Names. Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Edda Gentry translator, English version 1993.

Colm Dubh, "English Inn & Tavern Names of the Middle Ages", KWHS AS XXXIII,

De Felice, E. (1986). Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.p.A, Milan, fourth edition.

De Felice, E. (1986). Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.p.A, Milan.

Dictionary of muslim names

Drosdowski, Gunther. Deutshes Geographische Namenwelt. Suhrkamp: Frankfort, 1985.

Ekwall, Eilbert. 1960. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names. Oxford University Press: Oxford. 4th (reprinted 1987)

Gandhi and Husain, The Complete Book of Muslim and Parsi Names,

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. 1977. The Old Norse Name. Studia Marklandica: Olney, MD.

MacLysaght, E. 1985. The Surnames of Ireland. Irish Academic Press: Dublin, sixth edition

Ó Corráin, D. and F. Maguire 1981. Gaelic Personal Names The Academy Press: Dublin.

Oxford University, editor 1971. The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. 1995. A Dictionary of British Surnames Oxford University Press, Oxford, third ed.

Robson, T. "The British Herald", Summary of Order Names, compiled by Alexander Ravenscroft

Seltzer, L. E., ed. (1952). The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. Columbia University Press, Morningside Heights, NY.

Talan Gwynek (1993). "A Glossary of the Personal Names in Díez Melcón's Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses." Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings, Shire of Rokkehealdan, 25-27 June, AS XXVIII, pp. 113-140. Free Trumpet Press West, Mountain View, CA.

Thanet, Paul Wickenden of (1996). A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. SCA Inc. --Free Trumpet Press West, Mountain View, CA, 3rd edition.

Webster's Biographical Dictionary. 1943. Nielson, W. A., editor in chief. First Edition G. & C. Merriam Co. Springfield, Mass.

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names 1977. Third. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Wright, F. A. (1984). Lempriére's Classical Dictionary. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 3rd. ed.


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