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Minutes of the 15 October 2000 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Mar 2001 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

Crescent called the meeting to order at 11:16, completed at 15:50.

Three cheers for Mistress Selene, and Master Christopher!! 66.6% of this Reign's Pelicans are heralds.

We just had a collegium. We are looking bringing in a New professor at Antelope Valley College to teach a class. There will be an Old Irish Class, naming practices in Mid. Lithuania, Field Heraldry, Territorial Heraldry (required course for all territorial heralds), Heraldry Roundtable, Heraldic Ranks. We will have a room for consulting as well.

We held a road show at last collegium. Two and a half people attended. Crescent thinks it is possible that the general populace doesn't care about the submissions much, so he does not feel it behooves us to repeat this. Better service to our populace would be to have consultation available. Chevron adds that Collegium is experimenting with a flat $10 rate in Spring (Instructors pay $5). Instructors will still be fully reimbursed (with receipts.)

Our Hostess wishes to thank the heralds, especially Mistress Selene, for the very fine heraldic class for children which was taught at collegium. The comment "If it can be taught to 8 year olds, it can be taught to fighters."

Dun Or anniv. is next Saturday. Help would be greatly appreciated.

James was very happy with the consulting at GWW. Lots of submissions being processed today. Thanks to James, Eridana, Jeanne Marie,

Consulting and territorial heralds, please remember to put the locality (SCA branch, city and zip code) in which the submitter lives! Do this on the device form as well! Please remember to put the New forms in the folder with the old ones, if a folder exists.

The next KWHS will be June 1 - 3, 2001, in the Barony of Nordskogen (Northsheld, Middle), @ Double Tree Grand Hotel in Bloomington, Minn (across from the Mall of Americas). This is opposite Caid Coronation.

To subscribe to the Caid Herald's email list... [Current information can be found on the Caid-Heralds page.]

Included in these minutes are the submissions from the Fall Collegium Road Show, 30-Sept-2000*


Caid, Kingdom of

Caid, Kingdom of - Ambres Pursuivant (New heraldic title)

Name:

Submitted as Ambre Pursuivant

Ambres is a region in France, found in Dauzat, "Noms de Lieux", page 14. Crescent would prefer Ambre, the 12th century spelling of the river Amber, found in Ekwall, page 9, dated to 1191, but we are uncertain of Laurel's stand on registering river names as heraldic titles. We note that according to Ekwall, the word amber is etymologically descended from the Sanskrit word for "river".

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Altavia, Barony of

Eichling von Amrum (augmentation of arms)

Argent, an oak sapling eradicated sable, on a chief azure a mullet argent and for augmentation, surmounting the Trunk an inescutcheon azure charged with four crescents conjoined in saltire, horns outward argent.

Device:
A letter granting the Augmentation is included.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Calafia, Barony of

Abigail Chandler of Caithness (New Name)

Name:
Abigail is from OCM, page 1. Chandler is from Reaney, page 90. Caithness is a placename from Johnston, "Placenames of Scotland", page 121.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Adelicia of Caithness (New Name)

Name:
Adelicia is found in Withycombe, page 15, under Caithness is found in Johnston's "Placenames of Scotland", page 121.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

*Alpais Forst (New name and device)

Quarterly azure and Or, two axes Or.

Name:
"Alpais" - documented from http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/sainta60.htm Patron Saints Index. Died 1211 in France, beatified 1874. The submitter is aware that Alpais is a feminine name. Alternate spellings provided from genealogical websites Elpheid and Alphais, daughter of Louis I the pious of Aquitaine. Forst": Germ"anic for forest. "Forst" is also found in Bahlow (1998 ed., p. 147, sn Forst) as "de Vorste: from 1360. [Reaney and Wilson, p. 178] under "Frost, Forst" shows the name "Forstas being found in "the Domesday book.
Device:
Note that both the RFS and Laurel precedent (Jul 92, among others) indicate that this is not marshalling in the sense prohibited by the RFS. A number of devices found in the Ordinary are similar to this design, but incorporate primary charges sufficiently different to be clear under X.2.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

*David of Caithness (New device)

Azure, on a chevron Or between three beavers statant erect argent maintaining an ax gules.

Name:
pending at Laurel
Device:
Largely because of the size at which the beavers are drawn, the animals and their maintained charges are unidentifiable. This would be a reason for return, but the device also conflicts with Timotheos of Alexandria Feb 96 Azure a chevron Or between two open books and a unicorn rampant regardant maintaining a quill pen argent. Note to submitter: changing the beavers to argent will clear this conflict, but would introduce a different one.

DEVICE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT

Der Finn ingen Fhergail (New Name)

Name:
Der Finn is a feminine name found in OCM, page 72. ingen is the feminine patronymic. Fhergail is the lenited genitive form of Fergal from OCM, page 97, and is dated to 722.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Elaine of Elswicke (petition for reinstatement)

Name:
Registered by Laurel 12/92
Letter from Elaine:
"This letter is written to inform you that I have learned that my original device may have been released which was not of my choosing. Would you please retrieve my original device, "Per fess azure and purpure, on a fess fleury counter-fleury argent, a lozenge vert" and place it as my primary device. The device listed in the OP should also remain under my name but should be in secondary position."

FORWARDED WITH APPROVAL OF THE COLLEGE

*Jamie of Eilean Donan (Resub Laurel Name)

Name:

Previous submission (Jamie MacKenzie) returned on the June 2000 LoAR for conflict with Sir James MacKenzie, Scottish cardiologist.

Jamie - documented in Withycombe p. 171 (sn James), but undated. Diminutive "in Scotland spelt Jamie". JameTesta de Neville dated to the 13th century. Black shows "Jamie" as a surname (Elizabeth Jamie) in 1623. The variant "Jame" is also found as a surname ("Robert Jame) in 1537" in [Black, p. 382].

Johnston, Placenames of Scotland, p.172 lists "Eilean Donan" as a header spelling, with variant spellings dated to 1425, 1503. This spelling is not dated.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Kaspar MacPherson (New name and device)

Or, a lion couchant sable within 6 thistles in annulo proper

Name:
Kaspar - Seibicke, p. 656-657, dated to 1501, Kaspar Mart, Withycombe, p. 173, under Jasper. MacPherson - Black, p. 557, dated to 1420.
Device:
Note to artist: please draw the lion larger

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Magy Gordon (New Name)

Name:
Magy is a feminine name dated to the 1400's in Talan Gwynek's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records", Caidan Heraldic & Scribal Symposium, March 1996, V2, page 60. Gordon is found in Black, page 319, dated to 1408.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Marie Aoibeall (New name and device)

Purpure, a bell and on a chief embattled or three quavers sable

Name:

Submitter does not allow major changes.

Marie - English spelling documented to 1189, Talon Gwynek, p. 105, KWHS AS XXIX, Reaney & Wilson p. 299, as part of a matronymic. Withycombe says 13c French given name (p. 28 of introduction). Submitting herald confirms submitter wants "Marie, not Maíre." Aoibeall - RfS II.5, biological mother's registered SCA name, Jana Aoibeall, registered 6/1986.

Device:
Note to artist: please make the chief larger and reduce the embattling slightly.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR REDRAW

Phelan de Bruce (New name)

Name:

The submitter wants a male name and will not allow major changes. If the name must be changed, then he cares most about the sound. The submitter is willing to accept the spelling "de Bruis".

Phelan is documented from Maclysaght p. 245 and O'Corráin & Maguire p. 92 (sn Fáelán). Phelan is also found in OCM, 1981, p 92-93, under the header Faélan'. It is actually cited as OPhelan being derived from Faélan. Bruce is documented from Withycombe p. 55 de Bruce is found under Bruce, dated to 1274-1329. Also found in Reaney & Wilson p. 69.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Carreg Wen, Shire of

Alana Buchanan (New device)

Vert, a horse passant contourny on a chief urdy argent two roses purpure

Name:
Registered by Laurel 11/97
Device:
Note to artist, please up the urdy (make them larger and reduce the number)

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Darach, Shire of

Basil Longstaffe (New name)

Name:

The submitter wants a male name and is interested in having the name be authentic for 13th-14th century English.

Basil, Withycombe, p. 43. Longstaff , header spelling in Reaney & Wilson, p. 284, date to 1210. Also found in Dolan English Ancestral Names, p. 276.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Marcus le Strange (New name)

Name:

The submitter wants a male name and will not accept major changes. If the name must be changed he cares most about language/culture (13th century Norman).

Marcus dated to 1273 on p. 206 of Withycombe. le Strange is documented from Reaney & Wilson (3rd ed., hardcover) on p. 430 (sn Strange). Hugh le Strange is dated 1221.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Meadhbh Eileanach (New badge)

[fieldless] A dragonfly per pale argent and vert

Name:
Registered by Laurel 3/97

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Miryam æt West Seaxe (New Name)

Name:

Submitted as Mariam æt West Seaxe

Mariam is found under Mary in Withycombe, page 211. It is a transliteration of the Greek Biblical name Μαριαμ [MU-alpha-rho-iota-alpha-mu] (from the Hebrew feminine name transliterated as Mrym). Unfortunately, Withycombe does not verify its usage in England. Rather, the form Miryam is used and dated to the 7th C. æt is the Anglo-Saxon word for at or from. West Seaxe is found under Wessex in Ekwall, page 507, dated to 871.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Valentina Teresina Piera Martinis (New name)

Name:
The submitter wants a female name is interested in having the name be authentic for late 14th Italian. If the name must be changed she cares most about the meaning. If three given names are not allowed, the submitter wishes to drop Piera. Valentina is documented from de Felice Nomi, p. 348 (sn Valente). Teresina is documented from de Felice Nomi, p. 342 (sn Teresa). Piera is documented from de Felice Nomi, p. 300 (sn Pietro). Martinis is documented from de Felice Cognomi, p. 163 (sn Martini).

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Caoilinn inghean Ghearóid (New Name)

Name:
Caoilinn is found under Cáelfind in OCM, page 41. inghean is the feminine patronymic. Ghearóid is the lenited genitive form found as the header in OCM, page 110.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Mons von Goarshausen (Laurel resubmission device)

Per pale gules and sable three closed fetter locks Or

Name:
Registered by Laurel 11/1999
Device:
Does not conflict with, but we cite, Berengeria de Hainault, 3/98, azure, three stirrups Or leathered argent

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Gallavally, Canton of (Dreiburgen)

*Camillia of Addershold (New device)

Per pale sable and purpure, a unicorn's head erased argent, and on a chief embattled Or three roses gules barbed vert

Name:
Registered by Laurel Jan 96
Device:
We note that this device has a complexity count of 9; however, based on the overall appearance of the device, we do not believe it is excessively complex. The interior detailing of the roses is not correct; however, this does not impeach their identifiability; submitter shall be instructed on the correct drawing of an heraldic rose.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Taliesin de Morley (New badge)

Azure, a sun within an orle argent

Name:
Registered by Laurel 6/93
Badge:

We cite: Isaac de Hugo, 5/92, Azure, an estoile of 8 rays within an annulet and a bordure all argent

"Were this on any other shape, there would be a definite difference between them. Only when shown on a roundel does this possibly conflict." Submitter intends this to be an orle, and is aware of what that means.

Note to artist: make the sun's rays much stronger.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dun Or, Barony of

Dun Or, Barony of: The Order of the Gilded Antelope (New Order name and Badge)

Azure, an antelope's head erased within a bordure embattled Or.

Name:
The submission included a letter of approval from the Baron, Baroness, Seneschal and Cornet, and included signatures of 10 other members of the Barony. We note that the Barony already has the title of Golden Antelope, and wish the New name as distinct from it. Gilded may be found in the OED, page 1142, and dates in this spelling to 1566, meaning something coated in gold. Antelope is found on pages 89-90 of the OED, dated to 1596.
Badge:
We believe these arms are clear of the SCA armory: Azure, a fawn's head erased and a gyron issuing from the dexter side in chief Or (Kerrinda of Kymry, July 1974). We feel that there is a substantive difference between fawn's head and an heraldic antelope's with the addition of the attire.

NAME AND BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

*Dun Or, Barony of: L' Ordure du Serpente Vert (New order name and badge)

Or, a serpent encircled vert, a bordure embattled azure.

Name:
Submitted as "Order of the Serpent Vert." This name mixes language elements in a single name phrase in a manner not known to have been used in period. Laurel precedent of September 1994 (Da'ud IV, p. 55), indicates that in using [tincture][noun] in household names that "English...has no tradition of house names based on armory...." We infer that the same would be true of Order names. A solution would be to translate the name either into English ("The Order of the Green Serpent") or entirely into French ("L'Ordure du Serpente Vert" [We are unsure of the gender and spelling of the word serpent, and appeal to the CoA for assistance]). By phone call to the baronial herald we found that the group prefers the form "serpent vert" and made the change accordingly.
Badge:

The posture of the serpent is shown in Parker, p. 529, who describes it as encircled or involved. Crescent prefers the former to avoid confusion with the current SCA usage of serpents 'involved in annulo.'

Crescent requests the consulting herald inform the submitter that the bordure must be drawn wider.

ORDER NAME APPROVED (AS CHANGED) AND SENT TO LAUREL
BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

*Dun Or, Barony of (New order badge)

[Fieldless] A quatrefoil gules, seeded Or

Name:
For the Order of the Crimson Poppy. Submitted to Laurel June 2000.
Device:
Laurel precedent Da'ud 2 Feb 96 indicates that roses and quatrefoils are distinct. However, this emblazon blurs the distinction between a rose and a quatrefoil, and because we allow a difference between the two flowers, we must require that the charge be drawn to be clearly one or the other.

BADGE RETURNED FOR REDRAW

Wolfram von Dietzenbach (New Badge)

Argent, besom inverted sable.

Badge:
Conflicts with (Fieldless) A besom inverted sable, (Emrys Eustace, Nov '91).

RETURNED FOR CONFLICT


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Draga von Falkenstein (New name)

Name:

The submitter will not accept major changes.

Draga is a undated feminine name found in Wilfred Seibicke Historisches Deutches Vornamenbuch (de Amyter, Berlin, 1996, Band 1, p. 543). Found under Drogo in Withycombe, P. 89, Gothic. von means "of".

Falkenstein is documented in Brechenmacher, Vol. 1, p. 428 as a surname and locative. Wernherus dictus de Falkenstein is dated to 1281.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Katherine of Scarborough (New Name)

Name:
Katherine is one of the header spellings in Withycombe, page 186, undated. Scarborough is the header spelling in Johnson "Placenames of England and Scotland", page 433, dated to 1436.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Fionnghuala inghean Néill (New Name)

Name:
Fionnghuala is from OCM, page 103. inghean is the lenited patronymic. Néill is under Njalls in OCM, page 145. The genitive case is shown in both OCM and in Woulfe.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Louis Lewys (New name)

Name:

The submitter will not accept major changes.

Louis is documented from Dauzat p. 398 as a French masculine given (baptismal) name and from Withycombe p. 195 under Lewis. Lewys is documented from Reaney & Wilson (3rd ed., hardcover) p. 278 under Lewis. William Lewys is dated to 1267.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Rory MacLean the Gallowglas (New Name)

Name:

Submitter allows no changes.

Rory is found in Black, page 699, dated to 1467. MacLean is the header spelling found in Black, page 536. Galloglas is an occupational byname, found in the OED, page 1108, but as the submitter has not permitted any changes, major or minor, we must return this. We recommend that he choose a period spelling for both of the last two name elements.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Temair Fholtchaín (New Name)

Name:
Temair is found in OCM, page 170, dated to 665. Fholtchaín is found under Fedelm in OCM, page 94.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Elisabeth Goodchilde (New Name)

Name:
Elisabeth is found under Elizabeth in Withycombe, page 99, dated to 1483. Goodchilde is found in Reaney, page 197, dated to s 1366.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Max Gartenheit of Heatherwyne (New Name)

Name:
Max is the header spelling with Maximilian found in Bahlow, page 357, and is undated. Maximilian is dated to 1459. The submitter will accept Maximilian if the short form is found unacceptable by Laurel. Gartenheit is the SCA-registered surname of the submitter's biological grandmother, Karol Johanna Gartenheit, and she has signed the form indicating her approval of this usage. Heatherwyne is the submitter's local SCA branch.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Ildhafn, Shire of

*Benedict Stonhewer of Askerigg (New name and device)

Sable, a lion and on a chief argent two towers sable.

Name:

Submitted as Benedict Stonecrafter of Askrigg. He is interested in having his name be authentic for 12th-15th century English (Yorkshire/Danelaw).

Benedict is cited by Withycombe, p 46, dated to 490, and also attested in 1273.

The submitter checked the "will not accept major changes" box, but indicated in the consultation notes that Stonecrafter is intended as a play on the submitter's legal name [Mason], and he wishes to retain that meaning, and is willing to accept an alternate form such as "...'Stonewright' or other suggestion that puns with 'Mason'." Stonecrafter does not appear to be documentable, but Stonwright and Stonehewer appear undated in Dolan, J.R. English Ancestral Names, Clarkson & Potter, NY 1972, p. 100. Study into the construct [noun]+wright indicates its usage was likely used to denote an article made with no evidence that it was used to denote material worked with. (See Reaney, The Origin of English Surnames, pp 206-207.) The same text, p. 179, indicates the English term for Butcher to be Flesh-hewer. Bardsley, p. 719, shows Richard Stonhewer (from the history of Durham), and John Stonehewer, dated to 1605, and defines the name as an occupational by-name for a stone mason or quarryman. Askrigg is reported to be a significant village in Wensleydale, Yorkshire; the submitter provides photocopies of The Best of Britain Heritage Series: Wensleydale, by Dingwall and Hillery (Discovery Publishing Ltd: Middleton-in-Teesdale, Durham, unk.) which lists the village, noting that it is reported in the Domesday book as "Ascric". "Askrigg" is a header spelling in Ekwall, which dates the spelling "Askerigg" to 1287.

Device:
The submitter will be advised to draw the towers larger. There was discussion on the appropriateness of the lion's posture, specifically that both of the lion's back paws are on the ground; Crescent believes this to be an acceptable depiction of "rampant".

NAME APPROVED AS MODIFIED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Isles, Shire of

Isabel de Triana (kingdom resubmission device)

Vert, on a cross quarter-pierced argent, four frogs vert

Name:
Registered by Laurel 4/1995

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Lyondemere, Barony of

Anabel de Marseille (New Name)

Name:
Anabel is found under Annable in Reaney, page 11, dated to 1204. Marseille is a city in France, the header spelling in Dauzat "Noms de Lieux", page 438, with various spellings dating to the 5th century. We note that the submitter does not permit either major or minor changes.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Cassandre Nicola Loustannau (New badge)

Argent, five oriental bats in annulo, heads to center gules

Name:
Registered by Laurel 6/90
Badge:
Submitter specifically desires the form of oriental bat. Defining instance of this was registered in 1988 without comment. Badge for Clea de Hunedoara, Atenvelt, 11/88, purpure in pall three oriental bats tergiant displayed heads to center within a bordure argent.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Ginevra da Cunha (kingdom resubmission device)

Per chevron throughout azure and argent, two chalices and a ship counterchanged

Name:
sent to Laurel 6/2000
Device:
Note to submitter, the pennant should be blowing in the same direction as the billow of the sail.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Sigrid Lornesdottir (New name)

Name:

Registered by Laurel as Deredere inghean Chananaich (note difference from submitted form) 12/99 via Caid. The submitter is interested in having a feminine name authentic for "sound". If the name must be changed she cares most about the sound. If the name change is approved, she wishes to release her currently registered name.

Sigrid is documented from Withycombe p. 269 and is dated to the 8th century.

Lornesdottir is a constructed byname. Lornes is documented in Black p. 438 and is dated to 1423. Dottir is the Anglo-Saxon ending meaning "daughter."

RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Ungust Filius Antonii (Laurel resubmission device)

Argent, two double-bitted axes in saltire sable surmounted by a brown bull's head cabossed proper

Name:
We do not know the status of the name. The device was passed, but there was no published ruling on the name. Submitted to Laurel 1/2000.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Naevehjem, Barony of

Gregory Morgan (New device)

Or, two natural panthers combatant sable and a bordure Vert

Name:
Registered by Laurel 8/95
Device:
The animals are not identifiable

RETURNED FOR REDRAW


Starkhafn, Barony of

Brig ingen mhag Rhaith (kingdom resubmission device)

Per pale azure and vert, a griffin between three roses argent

Name:
Registered by Laurel 8/99

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Caoilinn the Soother (New Name)

Name:
Caoilinn is found under Cáelfind in OCM, page 41. The byname Soother is submitted under the Lingua Anglica rule, and means "one who soothes". We also note that Soother is found in the OED, page 2920, dated to 1598, and means "flatterer".

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Wintermist, Shire of

Muirenn ingen Fhedaigh (New Name)

Name:
Muirenn is found in OCM, page 141, dated to 831. ingen is the feminine patronymic. Fhedaigh is the lenited genitive case of Fedach, found in OCM, page 94, dated to 876.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans (1967). Dictionary of German Names. Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Edda Gentry translator, English version 1993.

Bardsley, C. W. (1988). A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Heraldry Today, Ramsbury, Wiltshire, originally published (London) 1901.

Black, George F. 1946. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library. Ninth printing, 1989.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Woerterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen. Limburg a.d. Lahn: C.A. Starke Verlag.

Dauzat, A. (1987). Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France. Larousse, Paris. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet.

De Felice, E. (1986). Dizionario dei Cognomi Italiani. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.p.A, Milan, fourth edition.

De Felice, E. (1986). Dizionario dei Nomi Italiani. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.p.A, Milan.

Dolan, J.R. English Ancestral Names, Clarkson & Potter, NY 1972, p. 100.

Ekwall, Eilbert. 1960. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names. Oxford University Press: Oxford. 4th (reprinted 1987)

Johnston, J. B. (1934) Place-Names of Scotland. London: John Murray 3rd ed.

MacLysaght, E. 1985. The Surnames of Ireland. Irish Academic Press: Dublin, sixth edition

Ó Corráin, D. and F. Maguire 1981. Gaelic Personal Names The Academy Press: Dublin.

Oxford University, editor 1971. The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reaney, P. H. (1967) The Origin of English Surnames, Rutledge and Paul, London.

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. 1995. A Dictionary of British Surnames Oxford University Press, Oxford, third ed.

Seibicke, Wilfred (1996). Historisches Deutches Vornamenbuch. de Amyter, Berlin.

Talan Gwynek 1996 "On Feminine Patronymics in Gaelic" Caidan Heraldic and Scribal Symposium, AS XXX, Vol. II. pages 51-57. Caidan College of Heralds: Upland, CA.

Talan Gwynek's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records", Caidan Heraldic & Scribal Symposium, March 1996, V2, p

Withycombe, E. G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names 1977. Third. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Woulfe Patrick Sloinnte Gaetheal ir Gall: Irish Names and Surnames Genealogical Publishing Company 1967 Baltimore.


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