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Minutes of the 21 March 1999 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Aug 1999 LoAR]

[Note: The printed versions of these minutes incorrectly identify themselves as the minutes for the 21 February 1999 meeting.]

Notes and Announcements

Future meeting dates are: 11 April, 23 May, 6 June, 18 July, 22 August, 12 September, 17 October, 17 November, and 12 December.

Don't forget the Caidan Scribal and Heraldic Symposium, May 1st and 2nd in Calafia. Details are in the March Crown Prints, or on the web at http://people.qualcomm.com/nomad/SCA/cshs. Fliers are also available at the meeting. Cost is $15 for the weekend (including the feast) or $4 for Sunday only.

We're looking for articles for the proceedings. You don't have to teach a class to have an article published. Contact the editor (Ragnal Ban, [contact info deleted]) if you have anything to contribute.

Heatherwyne Anniversary is June 5th. Jeanne Marie Lacroix [contact info deleted] is offering crash space for anyone who is interested in attending Anniversary and then the Kingdom Heraldry meeting on June 6th.

Laurel letter. The precedence on Gaelic/English orthography is over turned. Discussion on use of names from period literature. As of the January 1999 BOD meeting there is new Laurel submissions deputy (Garnet Herald).

Laurel is asking for bids on the 2000 Symposium. Caid will probably be bidding on it. Contact Mistress Astra/THL Astriðr.

To subscribe to the caid_heralds's mailing list [original subscription directions deleted in favor of a link to the list page.]

Submissions Considered:

Agatha of Tintagel.

Battista Kie De Lagos. Per fess bert and purpure, on a fess between two keys fesswisse Or two scorpions tergient addorsed tails entwined sable

Bjorn of the Kuma. Sable, on a pile throughout between two lightening bolts in pile Or, a brown bear's head cabossed proper

Bríg Inghen Mhac Raith. Per fess azure and vert, a griffin sergeant maintaining a rose slipped argent

Branwen Ferch Dafydd. [Fieldless] A vol per pale gules and sable

Calafia, Barony of. [fieldless] A dragon's jambe palewise Or, holding a heart fesswise gules

Calafia, Barony of. Azure, between two swords in fess reversed argent, a sea serpent ondoyant emergent sable fimbriated Or

Calafia, Barony of. The Order of the Defenders of the Serpent

Caoilinn nic Lachlainn.

Cassandra Zoë Paganel. Azure, a silkie Or headed argent, in chief on three flames Or three gouts azure

Conall Eoin MacTavish. [fieldless] A cross formy within and conjoined to an annulet argent

Dietmar Reinhart von Straubing. [fieldless] A seeblatt vert

Dubh Easa of Inishmore.

Erwin Bloodaxe. Per chevron argent and gules, two wolf's heads erased sable and a double-bitted axe bendwise sinister argent

Faílenn Faídhain inghean uí Thighearnaigh. Per bend sinister purpure and azure three dolphins hauriant argent.

Gold Phoenix Herald.

Gunora Morwyne.

Igor' L'vov.

Irina Dionisiya Tolochkova.

Madeline Popejoy de St. Michel.

Madog Maelgwyn Ap Llewelyn. Sable, between the tines of a hart's massacre argent a lightning bolt Or

Margaret Elizabeth of Carlisle. Vert, three domestic cats sejant argent

Martin Aus Brandenburg. [Fieldless] A griffin sergeant regardant argent breathing flames gules fimbriated Or maintaining in its sinister forepaw a chalice argent

Mykola Alecksandr. (Fieldless) Four bows drawn with arrows nocked, conjoined in cross, arrowheads outward argent.

Pádraig MacMurtagh. Sable, a phoenix Or flamed Or fimbriated gules and on a chief Or three dumbeks sable

Phila Alexius Tzourillas. Per bend sinister purpure and vert a cala lily slipped and leaved argent

Phila Alexius Tzourillas. Per bend sinister purpure and vert overall two lilies slipped in squashed saltir and two lily leaves in pile argent

Rhiannon MacPherson. Per bend sinister purpure and sable, on a bend sinister between a wolf's head erased and a skull argent, three triquetras palewise gules

Serena Nickolei.

Siwan ferch Rhys. Per fess argent and sable, a sprig of three holly leaves vert fructed gules and a daisy Or seeded gules

Teka Turmanov. Per bend potenty sable and Or, two tau crosses counterchanged

Thea Gabrielle Northernridge.

Uggi Surtarson.

Valerianus Magnus.


Caid, Kingdom of

Gold Phoenix Herald (Kingdom Resub Name)

Name:
This title follows the English practice of using charge names in heraldic titles.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


al-Sahid, Shire of

Teka Turmanov (New device?)

Per bend potenty sable and Or, two tau crosses counterchanged

Name:
Name registered by Laurel 3/98
Device:
Note to artist: please feed the potenty, and please don't chop them off at the end of the field.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Altavia, Barony of

Margaret Elizabeth of Carlisle (New Name and Device)

Vert, three domestic cats sejant argent

Name:
Margaret in [Withycombe, E. G.; (1997), p. 206-207] and for Elizabeth [Withycombe, E. G.; (1977), p. 99-100.] Carlisle is the header entry in both [Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M.; (1995), p. 84] and in [Ekwall, Eilbert; (1960), p. 88] but the dated examples do not match this spelling.
Device:
We note Lynch Sable, three cats argent Papworth, p. 155 and Gibbes Vert, three cats passent argent Papworth, p. 156 but see no reason to believe that the names or armory are important enough to protect as neither of these are present in the Biographical Dictionary.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Angels, Barony of

Battista Kie De Lagos (Kingdom Resub Name and Device)

Per fess vert and purpure, on a fess between two keys fesswise Or two scorpions tergient adorsed tails entwined sable

Name:
For Battista see attached documentation (printout of web pages) for Leone Battista Alberti dated to 1104. We also found Battista in [De Felice, Emidio; (1986), p. 73] under the heading Battisti. Kie is the submitter's mundane first name, copy of driver's license attached. The form Battista Kie is supported as a double name in [De Felice, Emidio; (1986), p. 86] under Battista Giovanni. For Lagos submitter included printouts of web pages form Robinson Resarch World of Knowledge dating Lagos to 1445 (as the site of first slave auction in Europe involving west Africans). Also included printout of tourism web pages showing Lagos was the capital of the Algarve province of Portugal from 1567-1756. We also found Lagos in [Seltzer, L.E.; (1952), p. 1007] where it is claimed that Largos was once the favorite residence of Prince Henry the Navigator (which was the mid-1400s). There was contact between Italy and Portugal during period, thus a name using elements from both languages is not unsupportable.
Device:
This device was pended at the September 1998 Kingdom meeting for lack of name.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Cassandra Zoë Paganel (Kingdom Resub Device)

Azure, a silkie Or headed argent, in chief on three flames Or three gouts azure

Device:
We believe this is clear of Astriðr Selr Leifsdottir's Azure, a melusine with hands clasped at her breast argent, crined and tailed, and in chief three estoiles of eight rays Or but we have a letter of permission to conflict anyway. Astriðr is Crescent's lady and was thus present at the Kingdom meeting. She volunteered the permission to conflict.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Calafia, Barony of

Calafia, Barony of (Kingdom Resub Badge)

[fieldless] A dragon's jambe palewise Or, holding a heart fesswise gules

Name:
Name registered by Laurel long ago

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Calafia, Barony of (New Badge)

Azure, between two swords in fess reversed argent, a sea serpent ondoyant emergent sable fimbriated Or

Name:
Name registered by Laurel long ago
Badge:
Calafia is grandfathered to use this Serpent. Badge for the Order of the Defenders of the Serpent. The fimbriation needs to completely surround each segment of the serpent.

APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Calafia, Barony of: The Order of the Defenders of the Serpent (New Order Name)

Name:
Name registered by Laurel long ago
Order Name:
There is no documentation showing that this formation is proper period formation of order names as required by RfS III.2.b.ii.

RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION

Agatha of Tintagel (Name Change)

Name:
Her current name Angharad Chy A Tyr Sterrenow is being retained as an alternate name. Agatha is dated to 1136 in [Wythycombe, E. G.; (1997), pp. 5-6] and Tintagel is dated to 1212 in [Ekwall, Eilbert; (1960), p. 474.]

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Caoilinn nic Lachlainn (New Name)

Name:
Submitted as Caoilinn Nic Lachlann. Caoilinn is found under Cáelfind in OCM, p. 41. This is the modern variant of Cáelfind and Cáelainn. Lachlann is cited by submitter in [Black, George F.; (1946), p. 410.] Lachlann is a modern spelling. Modern dates from the 15th century. The name is also in Wolfe, p. 386 as Mac Lachlainn. Lachlainn appears to be the genitive, so Caoilinn nic Lachlainn would seem to be the correct later form of Caoilinn inghen mhic Lachlainn.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Dubh Easa of Inshmore (New Name)

Name:
Dubh Easa found on OCM, p.78. Inishmore is in Ireland Through the Ages, Michael Jenner, p. 232 and in [Seltzer, L. E.; (1952), p. 839.]

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Erwin Bloodaxe (Kingdom Resub Name and Device)

Per chevron argent and gules, two wolf's heads erased sable and a double-bitted axe bendwise sinister argent

Name:
Erwin is constructed from the Anglo-Saxon Er- a protheme in Searle, p. 233 and -win a deuterotheme in Searle, p.499. Erwin is also found in Bahlow, p. 120 where it is dated to around 1300. Bloodletter is an occupational name in Bardsley, p. 111. Similarly,Bloodaxe is a translation of an Old Norse name in [Geirr Bassi Haraldsson; (1977), p. 20] This falls within the lingua anglica allowance.
Device:
This device was pended in the February meeting for lack of name.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Gunora Morwyne (New Name)

Name:
Gunora Withycombe p. 142. Under Gunnora. Gunora Cur, 1196-1220. Morwyne Reaney p. 314. Under Morren. John Morwyne, circa1275.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Mykola Alecksandr (New Badge)

(Fieldless) Four bows drawn with arrows nocked, conjoined in cross, arrowheads outward argent

Name:
This name was registered March 1992
Badge:
The visual appearance of a compass rose is due largely to the accident of an argent design on white paper for the fieldless submission. Commenters are encouraged to color in the background (other than in black) to see this effect for themselves.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Pádraig MacMurtagh (New Name and device)

Sable, a phoenix Or flamed Or fimbriated gules and on a chief Or three dumbeks sable

Name:
Pádraig OCM p. 152. Under Pátraig. Murtagh MacLysaght p. 231, under Murtagh. Woulfe p. 393. Under MacMuirceartaigh
Device:
The flames should be primarily yellow with vertical red stripes. The device was not completely conflict checked.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL. DEVICE RETURNED FOR REDRAW.

Serena Nickolei (New Name)

Name:
Serena found in German Lexikon der Vernamen, Drosdowski, p. 186, in Lempriere (1984), p. 622,and in [Withycombe, E. G.; (1977), p 266]. Nickolei is submitter's maiden mundane last name, a copy of her birth certificate is included. Nikolai and Nikolave found in Dictionary of Period Russian Names, Thanet, p. 158. Crescent believes that the use of her maiden name is a legitimate use of the mundane name allowance.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF SIGNATURE

Uggi Surtarson (New Name)

Name:
Uggi Geirr Bassi p. 15. Surtarson come from the patronymic meaning Son of Surtr which can be found on the same page. The genitive is formed correctly according to Ceasby and Vigfusson, submitter's photocopies attached. Despite the strong association of the name Surtr with the fire giant instrumental in the destriction of the world, the citation in Gierr Bassi of the name having been found in the Landnámbók which is confirmed in Cleasby and Vigfusson, indicates that the name was used by people.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Darach, Shire of

Faílenn Faídhain inghean uí Thighearnaigh (Kingdom Resub Name and Device)

Per bend sinister purpure and azure three dolphins hauriant argent

Name:

Faílenn OCM p. 93. Circa 637. Faídhain ingheau uí Thighearnaigh MacLysaght p. 286. Under Tierney, undated. Lenited by Harpy. Please ask submitter to include all of Tangwystl's communications, especially the meaning of Faídhain. It needs to be clearly identified as an epithet or occupational descriptor, otherwise it appears to be a case of two given names. Such form is not allowed in Gaelic names.

A complete check was not done, but no conflicts were found in the abbreviated check performed.

Device:
Submitted in January on wrong form. Submitted this month on correct forms. No conflicts were found in an abreviated check.

NAME AND DEVICE RETURNED FOR LACK OF SIGNATURE


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Conall Eoin MacTavish (New Badge)

[fieldless] A cross formy within and conjoined to an annulet argent

Name:
Registered by Laurel January 1993
Badge:
Note to artist: Starve the cross and feed the annulet. Reduce the splay on the cross to better differentiate the cross from the annulet.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Thea Gabrielle Northernridge (Name Correction)

Name:
Changing from Thea Gabrielle of Northernridge, registered by Laurel 11/94. Unmarked locatives are attested in English. All of the name elements are grandfathered to her.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


St. Geronimus, College of (Dreiburgen)

Branwen Ferch Dafydd (New Badge)

[Fieldless] A vol per pale gules and sable

Name:
Registered by Laurel June 1996
Badge:
Note to artist: please draw the space between the wingtips a bit wider.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Madeline Popejoy de st. Michel (New Name)

Name:
Madeline Withycombe p. 202. Submitted as Madelaine, chainged to reflect the only spelling we could find in Withycombe. Popejoy Reaney p. 337. Under Papigay. Undated. Saint Michel CLG, p. 1642. Submitted as St. Michel. We are expanding St. Michel (the scribal abbreviation) by spelling out the word Saint. We note that in the CLG the examples which are in France are universally hyphenated. Crescent believes this is a modern convention.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL (AS CORRECTED)

Rhiannon MacPherson (New Name and Device)

Per bend sinister purpure and sable, on a bend sinister between a wolf's head erased and a skull argent, three triquetras palewise gules

Name:
Crescent cites Brianna MacPherson registered in 8/85. He feels this is clear of conflict. Rhiannon Gruffudd p. 81. MacPherson Black p. 557. Dated to 1420.
Device:

Note to artist: Please feed the bend (make it larger) so the triquetras can be identified. Don't outline the triquetras in such thick black lines as it obscures the color of the triquetras. Draw the triquetras more uniformly.

Crescent considers this to be barely within the grounds of acceptability as an emblazon for this design.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Bjorn of the Kuma (New Name and Device)

Sable, on a pile throughout between two lightening bolts in pile Or, a brown bear's head cabossed proper

Name:
Bjorn is found in Vikings in Russia, Dagonell Collingwood, p. 1. Kuma is a river in southern Russia found in CLG, p. 989 and Reader's Digest Great World Atlas, p. 114. We are unable to date the river's name.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Dietmar Reinhart von Straubing (New Badge)

[fieldless] A seeblatt vert

Name:
Registered by Laurel 5/94
Badge:

Crescent sites Bela of Eastmarch, West 1/93, [Tinctureless] A grape leaf inverted dependent from a tendril. Crescent feels there is a CD between a leaf and a seeblatt.

And Crescent cites Leticia Troischesnes 10/96. [Fieldless] An oak leaf vert. Again, a CD between a leaf and a seeblatt.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Madog Maelgwyn Ap Llewelyn (Laurel Resub Household Name; New Household Badge)

Sable, between the tines of a hart's massacre argent a lightning bolt Or

Name:

The primary submitter's name, Madog Maelgwyn Ap Llewelyn was Registered by Laurel 11/98

Submitted as Sterling, changed to match the name of a town. Crescent argues that this could be the name of an Inn in the town of Sterling. He cites, from the Proceedings of the KWHS, Atenvelt 1998, in English Inn and Tavern Names, p. 167; The Halifax Crosse dated 1571, and The Inn of the Three Kings of Cologne dated 1538.

Badge:
Submitted as jointly held by Madog Maelgwyn Ap Llewelyn and Rhael Anedd.

HOUSEHOLD NAME AND BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Phila Alexius Tzourillas (New Name and Device)

Per bend sinister purpure and vert overall two lillies slipped in squashed saltir and two lily leaves in pile argent

Name:

Submitted on Locac College of Heralds forms. We can't document Tzourilla. In addition, it is unlikely that we would register a name which mixes male and female names.

Phila Lempriere, p. 471. Married to the King of Macedonia. Undated. Alexius Wbster's Biographical p. 30, the name of a 5th C. Christian Saint. The name of 5 rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Device:
The arrangement is very nicely naturalistic, but not heraldic. Crescent wishes he could draw a lily that well.

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DOCUMENTATION. DEVICE RETURNED FOR UNBLAZONABILITY.

Phila Alexius Tozurillas (New Badge)

Per bend sinister purpure and vert a cala lily slipped and leaved argent

Name:
Returned at this meeting
Badge:
Conflicts with Kingdom of Meridies, registered 10/97, [Fieldless] A lilly blossom argent.

BADGE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT


Naevehjem, Barony of

Igor' L'vov (New Name)

Name:
Both name elements are found in Paul Wickenden of Thanet, A dictionary of Period Russian Names, 2nd ed.Igor' is a masculine name under Igor' son of Riurik dated 913 p. 83 and L'vov under Lev a patronymic Matvei L'vov dated 1594 Thanet, p. 123

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Valerianus Magnus (New Name)

Name:
Valerianus is a masculine name dated 1213-1215 in [Withycombe, E. G.; (1977), p. 287] under Valerian. Magnus is a surname (unmarked patronymic) in [Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M.; (1995), p. 294] as Hugh Magnus ca. 1114. Both names are documented as names within the period of our study. There is no evidence that a Roman named Valerianus, including the emperor, was granted the title Magnus by the Senate.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Nordwache, Barony of

Irina Dionisiya Tolochkova (Name Change)

Name:
Name currently registered as Irina TolochkovaIrina from Paul Wickenden of Thanet, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, 2nd ed., p. 86. Dionisiya from "The Complete Russian Name Book", Vikontessa Tatiama Nikolaevna Tumanova O.L. p. 15. Tolochkova a patronymic (daughter of) formed from "Tolochko", a masculine given name from Paul Wickenden of Thanet, p. 243.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Starkhafn, Barony of

Bríg Ingen Mhac Raith (New Name and Device)

Per fess azure and vert, a griffin segreant maintaining a rose slipped argent

Name:

Bríg OCM p. 36

Mhac Raith id="Woulfe" p. 401, and as Mag Raith p. 424, both meaning son of grace or prosperity OCM p. 128. states that Mac Raith is an early name with a Munster-Leinster distribution. Mac has lenited to Mhac.

Letter from Master James of the Lake attached to name form.

Device:

Note to artist: A Griffin has lion's hindquarters. The rear feet on this beast are chicken feet, they need to be Lion's feet with claws extended.

Without a letter of permission to conflict, this device would conflict with that of Martin Aus Brandenburg, [Fieldless] A griffin segrent regardant argent breating flames gules fimbriated Or maintaining in its sinister forepaw a chalice argent. The submitters are married, but we do not automatically assume permission to conflict.

Crescent cites Griffin Val Drummond, 7/74, Per pale purpure and azure, a griffin segreant argent bearing in its dexter talon a morgenstern and in its sinister talon a targe charged with a tower azure.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL. DEVICE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT.

Martin Aus Brandenburg (New Badge)

[Fieldless] A griffin segreant regardant argent breating flames gules fimbriated Or maintaining in its sinister forepaw a chalice argent

Name:
Registered by Laurel 9/92
Badge:

Note to artist: A Griffin has lion's hindquarters. The rear feet on this beast are chicken feet, they need to be Lion's feet with claws extended.

Without a letter of permission to conflict, this device would conflict with that of Bríg Ingen Mhac Raith, Per fess azure and vert, a griffin segreant maintaining a rose slipped argent. The submitters are married, but we do not automatically assume permission to conflict.

Crescent cites Griffin Val Drummond, 7/74, Per pale purpure and azure, a griffin segreant argent bearing in its dexter talon a morgenstern and in its sinister talon a targe charged with a tower azure.

BADGE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT

Siwan ferch Rhys (New Name and Device)

Per fess argent and sable, a sprig of three holly leaves vert fructed gules and a daisy Or seeded gules

Name:
Submitted claims Siwan is Welsh for Joann. [Gruffudd, Heini; (1980), p. 86] dates this to the13th century, with a translation of Joan. Rhys is dated to 1093 and 1132-97 in [Gruffudd, Heini; (1980), p. 83.]Returned for conflict with Sian ferch Rhys registered March 1985.
Device:
No conflicts found, pended for lack of name.

NAME RETURNED FOR CONFLICT. DEVICE PENDED FOR LACK OF NAME.


Bibliography

Black, George F. (1946) The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York: The New York Public Library Ninth printing, 1989.

Da'ud ibn Auda (199?) "Arabic Names and Naming Practices" Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings, Middle, AS XXVIII, June 25-26. pages 23 - 35.

Ekwall, Eilbert (1960) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press 4th (reprinted 1987).

De Felice, Emidio (1986) Dizionario dei nome Italiani. Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson (1977) The Old Norse Name. Olney, MD: Studia Marklandica.

Gruffudd, Heini (1980) Enwau Cymraeg I Blant/Welsh Names for Children. Talybont, Dyfed, Wales: Y Lolfa Cyf.

Johnson, James (1994) Place Name of England and Wales<;/TITLE. London: Bracken Books Apparently a reprint of the 1915 edition pub. By John Murray.

Johnston, J. B. (1934) Place-Names of Scotland. London<;/ADR: John Murray 3rd ed.

MacLysaght, E. (1985) The Surnames of Ireland. Irish Academic Press, Dublin, sixth edition.

Ó Corráin, D. and F. Maguire (1981) Gaelic Personal Names. The Academy Press, Dublin.

Oxford University, editor (1971) The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reaney, P. H., and Wilson, R. M. (1995) A Dictionary of British Surnames. Oxford University Press, Oxford, third ed.

Regin Bran HaraldssønThe Meridian Heraldic SympsiumSCA (1982)

Schimmel, Annemarie (1989) Islamic Names. Edinburgh: Edinburght University Press.

Seltzer, L. E., ed. (1952) The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. Columbia University Press, Morningside Heights, NY.

Talan Gwynek (1996) "On Feminine Patronymics in Gaelic: Caidan Heraldic and Scribal Symposium, AAS XXX, Vol. II. Pages 51-57. Upland, CA.Caidan College of Heralds.

Paul Wickendon of Thanet (1996) Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Mountain View CA: FTPW Second.

Withycombe, E. G. (1977) The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press Third.

Wright, F. A. (1984) Lempriére's Classical Dictionary Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Proceedings of the 1998 Known World Heraldic Symposium (1998)


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