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Minutes of the 23 June 1996 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Nov 1996 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

The June meeting of the Caidan College of Heralds took place on 23 June 1996. In attendance were: Albyn Buckthorne, Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, Catrin ferch Daffyd, Christopher Leyland D'Eyncourt, Damien of Baden, Darrag, Eiríkr Sigurðarson, Ghislaine d'Auxerre, Griffin Crosthwait, Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood, James of the Lake, Katherine of Anglesey, Kelan McBride, Madawc Seamus Caradawg, Manus le Dragonier, Marie Elaine de Womwell, Morgan O'Daire, Murieadbach OhEidneachain, Nicolette Caramelle Avelaine, Nigel the Byzantine, Seosaidh MacFaoilchiere, and Wilhelm Roderick FitzLovel.

A meeting was requested with all commenters and senior heralds following the chapter meeting.

Mistress Zenobia provided information on membership in the Heraldic Society of Scotland; if you're interested, see Crescent.

Notes from the last two Letter of Acceptances and Returns (LoAR)'s were discussed. Of special note:

  • Then-Pelican Talan Gwnyek reminded the Colleges of Heralds and CoA commenters to be careful of citation, and ensure that the citation in fact means what you say it means.
  • It is doubtful that "Ian" is a period English name; Talan called for evidence on why this form should be given the benefit of the doubt.
  • "Myrddin" has been ruled to be a unique legendary name, and therefore not registerable, absent evidence of period use by real humans.
  • The formation of clan names in Gaelic was discussed, and the degree to which names in Gaelic laid claim to the chiefship of a clan
  • A bid to host the 1997 Know World Heraldic Symposium has been received from the Barony of Thescorre (Rochester NY).
  • Volume II of the Medieval Ordinary has been published, and is available from Heraldry Today for $60 plus postage.
  • If one of the three most common beasts/monsters is shown in its default heraldic posture, it is blazoned just by its name (ie. a "lion rampant" is a "lion", an "eagle displayed" is an "eagle", a "dragon segreant" is a "dragon".)

The Laurel and Pelican Sovereigns of Arms are changing at the Known World Heraldic Symposium (happening at the same time as our meeting). Moucheture (James of the Lake) was able to relay notes from a meeting held by then-Laurel Designate Jaelle of Armida at TYC:

First, split in duties between Laurel and Pelican KoA's will change. Pelican (Mistress Sionyn Muirgen ni Dhomnall) will take care of administrative matters to leave Laurel free to devote her attention to both armorial and name submissions. Our new Laurel said they will try this out (and other make other changes as time goes on) as an experiment, if it doesn't pan out, they will try something else. Any changes are promised to be gradual, though; they will not "throw out the babies with the bathwater." A part of Pelican's job will be monitoring performance of CoA members; the buck still stops with Laurel, but she is very unlikely to overrule Pelican.

Principal Heralds are required to submit LoI's at least every two months with the threat of removal (and Kingdom suspension) if this doesn't happen. Our new Laurel QoA also stressed that if a personal emergency should arise or whatever that prevents LoI submissions for a time that the QoA's will be understanding if permission is asked first. (In other words, keep in touch.) Similarly, commentors are required to submit their letters of comment at least once per 3 month period to stay on the roster.

Mistress Jaelle's goals for the office are to

(1) emphasize that the Society heralds are a service organization, not an end unto itself. Jaelle pledges her help to all to facilitate this.

(2) She plans to promote heraldic education through deputies (yet to be designated) for the populace, not just the heralds. She wishes to work through the Chatelaines as well to get to new members early (i.e., cut down on retroactive name documentation and concomittant disappointments with the process for both names and armory).

(3) The official Laurel web site (link from http://www.sca.org) now includes FTPW and all LoAR's from Baldwin's tenure to present; further additions to the page are planned. [Note: this hasn't all happened yet; Laurel intends to have this done within the next three months. ]

(4) Jaelle will work to improve heraldic services to our non-North American populace.

(5) The Laurel files are in 14 cabinets and these originals are not imperishable -- Jaelle plans to begin scanning all color submission forms as a backup with the additional goal of making a CD available to all (perhaps $10 each?). This is particularly for the benefit of the scribes as well as the heralds.

Jaelle will travel where needed to the best of her resources. She plans to be in the Outlands in July and tour Lochac in October. (Of course, she was in Meridies for the KWHS the weekend of our June meeting.)

Other topics were in response to questions asked by the heralds assembled. In regard to the various Kingdom submission forms and their differences, Jaelle (and the CoA) will develop and post an acceptable Society-wide form on the Laurel webpage, but it will be up to the Kingdoms whether they will adopt it. She mentioned that Lady Catrin ferch Dafydd will be submitting a paper on the electronic submissions process pioneered by Caid. A new Administrative Handbook should be out by the end of September; some four pages of recommended changes have gone out to the CoA for commentary. Except for the changes from Laurel to Laurel/Pelican, or just identifying Pelican, and the change from one color copy to Laurel to two, all the proposed changes are just that -- proposed -- everything else in the four pages of proposed changes are on the table. Concerning quarterly reports from Principal Heralds, call, write or email Jaelle if any have questions. Jaelle will be submitting a draft list of standard sources for documentation that would not require the submission of photocopies for use -- this to cut down on excessive paperwork.

On other subjects:

There has been a certain amount of discussion regarding sumptuary laws and customs in Caid in various fora recently. The situation, as we understand it, is this: Caid has *no* sumptuary law. Several people, including the Chatelaine's office, have offered lists of what they think the *customs* are (Lord Damien provided a copy of the Chatelaine's list, for which Crescent thanks him). These lists are an attempt to assist people in understanding the current customs, not a set of rules.


al-Sahid, Shire of

Lassarina nic Meechan (New name, New device)

Or, chapé azure, a horse salient sable queue fourchy and in chief two compass stars argent.

Name:

"Lassarina" is found on p. 53 of [Woulfe, 1967] apparently as the Anglicized form, and p. 211 under "Lasairfíona" as the anglicized form of "an ancient Irish name."

"MacMeechan" is found undated on p. 127 of [Woulfe, 1967], and on and p. 392 under "Mac Madaáin"; in both cases "MacMeechan" appears to the the Anglicized form. Based on [Gwynek, 1996, pg. 54], we believe with the submitter that the "Mac" would go to "Nic" even in the Anglicized form.

Device:
We are returning the device under Laurel precedent dated May 1996 which precludes charged chapés. The device would be acceptable (said "gorgeous" by several heralds) if it was changed to "per chevron throughout" or by doing without the compass stars.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR STYLE.


Calafia, Barony of

Hálfdan Haraldsson (Resub [Laurel] name)

Name:

"Charles of Warwick" was returned by Laurel in January of 1984, for conflict with Charles, Earl of Warwick (1659). His device, Per pale azure and argent, a dragon's head jessant-de-lys between three compass stars, all counterchanged was registered at that time, under the holding name "Charles of Calafia".

(Note the date; there is a possibility of confusion here, with the "Charles of Calafia" more recently registered (9409) as a holding name; this individual is Charles Schwatka in the 20th C.).

"Halfdan" is documented in John Heywood, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings, as one of the invaders of England in 865. (p. 11) and as a King of Denmark c. 873 (p. 136). Hálfdan is also on page 11 of [Haraldsson, 1977].

"Haraldsson": "Haraldr" is found in [Haraldsson, 1977, 11] as well, and appears to form the genitive "Haralds", resulting in the submitted form. Additionally several Haraldssons are mentioned in [Sturlason, 1990], including at least two different "Halvdan Haroldsson"s. None appear to have been previously protected; due to the fact that several individuals of that name were famous enough to appear in the Heimskringla, we do not feel that the name should be protected.

Device:
Registered by Laurel 8401.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Kara the Twin of Kelton (New name, New device)

Or two domestic cats sejant erect respectant, in base a heart and on a chief sable three hearts Or.

Name:

"Kára" is a Norse feminine given name found on page 12 in [Haraldsson, 1977]. It is shown with an accent over the first "a" but since the name is entirely anglicized we feel that the accent can be omitted; this is born out by the parallel form "Kári", also in Geirr Bassi, but appearing in [Sturlason, 1990] as "Kari"; while Geirr Bassi indicates that Heimskringla is the source for "Kára", she does not appear in the index of our edition.

"the twin" is considered to be a relational byname that should be acceptable in Anglicized names. We found the surname "Twin, Twinnn" apparently meaning "the twin" cited in [Reaney, 1976, pg. 358], dated to 1279 in the person of Nicholas Twin.

"Kelton" is a parish in South Kirkcudbright, Scotland according to the [Seltzer, 1952, pg. 926]. It is also found in [Johnston, 1934, pg. 214].

Device:
We note that in the emblazon the cats are actually touching; we feel that this is an artistic detail not significant to the arms.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.


Darach, Shire of

Cáelfind ben Uí Chonfraoich (New name)

Name:

Submitted as "Cáelfind O' Confraoich". "Cáelfind" is found on p. 41 of [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981], undated but the first listed form. "O' Confraoich" is based on p.54 of [MacLysaght, 1985]; "Mac Confraoich" is shown as the Irish form of "(Mac) Conefry".

Based on the submitter's apparent intent to match her husband's name ("Eoghan Ó Confraoich", see below), we have added the word "ben" as an early Gaelic usage which means wife. Because this is a feminine given name the Ó should be "uí" and the surname aspirates, adding an "h" [Gwynek, 1996, pp. 52-53]

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Eoghan Ó Confraoich (New name)

Name:

"Eoghan" is found in [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981, pg. 87] under the heading "Eógan" as the second listed (modern) entry; it is a masculine given name meaning "born of the yew".

"Ó Confraoich" is based on the entry found in [MacLysaght, 1985] on pg. 54 under the heading "(Mac)Conefry". It is noted to have the meaning "heather".

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Alasdair MacMitchell (New name (change), New device (change))

Per bend Or and gules a celtic cross gules and an ash tree argent.

Name:

This is a name change from "Alexander Drake" which was registered by Laurel (3/87). Should this name be registered, the submitter desires "Alexander Drake" to be released.

"Alastair" is found in [Withycombe, 1977] on pg. 13 under the heading "Alexander". It was early adopted into Gaelic as "Alasdair". [Black, 1946, pg. 450] shows various spellings of Alistair including Allestare, Alester, Allastair, Allestyr, etc., all as part of patronymics. "Mac 'Ic Alasdair" is listed as the patronymic of the chief of Glengarry, undated. We have decided to use this as the closest spelling to that of the submitter's "Allisdair".

"MacMitchell" is found in various similar spellings around 1661 and 1667, [Black, 1946, 542-3]. "Mitchell" in this exact spelling is found as a given name dated to 1490 on [Black, 1946, pg. 603] under the heading of the same.

Device:
No conflicts found. Should this device be registered, the submitter wishes his old device, Per chevron inverted gules and argent, a sword sable within a wreath of flames proper, to be released.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.

Alasdair MacMitchell -- household name "Clan MacMitchell" (New household name, New household badge)

Azure, a gryphon segreant ermine, within a bordure embattled Or.

Name:
[MacLysaght, 1972, pg. 234] cites "O'Mulvihil", the Anglicized form of "Ó Maoil Mhichil" as a sect of some importance in medieval times. The anglicized forms of this name are "Melville" and "Mitchell". [Bain, 1968, pg. 297] cites "Mitchell" as a sept of the Innes Clan which was important enough to get its own tartan. We, however, do not feel they are important enough to protect.
Badge:
The ermine colouring, which is fine in and of itself, combined with the awkward position of the tail makes the gryphon unidentifiable. This coupled with the thinly drawn bordure is too much. We are returning this to the submitter for redraw. A cursory check unearthed no conflicts.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.
BADGE IS RETURNED FOR REDRAW.

Thurston de Barri (Resub [Laurel] badge)

[fieldless] A winged lion-dragon statant contourny Or winged argent.

Badge:
His original submission [field less] An annulet surmounted by a winged lion-dragon sejant to sinister Or winged argent was returned by Laurel (2/96) for emblazonry style. "Deleting the annulet removes the problem." We see this as clear of the badge of The Shire of Moonschadowe (7/91), [Fieldless] A lion-dragon statant contourny Or.There is one CD for the fieldlessness and one CD for the addition of the wings.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Seosaidh MacFaoilcheire -- household name "Clann Fhaoilchéire" (New household name)

Name:
The household name is a formation of the submitter's surname "MacFaoilchéire". "The surname is an hypothetical compound of Gaelic "faol" 'wolf ' and "ciar" 'dusky, black'; both elements are used in compound Gaelic personal names of this type, so the basic idea is sound." The household name is in the form suggested for Gaelic clan names as given in the Laurel letter dated 5/2/96. "Faoilchéire" is Laurel's suggested genitive case for "black wolf" and the added "h" provides the aspiration required.

HOUSEHOLD NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.

Morgan O'Daire (New household badge for "House Wolfestead")

[fieldless] Three piles inverted in point within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

Name:
Morgan O'Daire's name was registered by Laurel in April 1996.
Badge:
This is a badge for "House Wolfestead". The houshold name was sent to Laurel in March 1996. The badge was originally submitted as having a bordure. This was changed, with permission, to an annulet, as a fieldless badge cannot have a bordure, which depends on the edge of the field to define its shape.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.


Drachenfeld, Canton of (Dreiburgen)

Drachenfeld, Canton of (Resub [Laurel] name)

Name:

"Drachenfeld" The name was originally submitted as Dragon's Citadel, which was returned by Laurel 02/96 for lack of documentation of the name formation. The resubmitted name of "Drachantorr" was returned by Caid for conflict with the "Shire of Drachentor". The petition supporting the name is enclosed.

"Drachen" is found in Deutsche Namenkunde on pg. 335 under the heading of "Drache(e)". "Drache" itself is also found in [Bahlow, 1972], under the heading Draa(c)k, dated to 1357.

Supporting the use of "Drachen-" as a prefix in toponyms, [Bahlow, 1965, pg. 87] notes "Drackenstedt" and [Seltzer, 1952] notes "Drachenfels" (incidentially asserted to be the site of Sigfried's fight with the dragon in folklore), with its fortress "Drachenburg"; and the town of "Drachten" in Friesland.

"feld" is German "field" in any of several meanings related to the basic "open land"; [Breul, 1936].

After much discussion of the closeness of the name "Drachenfeld" to "Drachenwald" (as in the Kingdom of ), the opinion of the College as to whether the name was free of conflict under the rules is mixed. It is a judgment call as to whether the difference in the names is "significant" or not (under V.2.a); we therefore give the submitters the benefit of the doubt and forward the name for the College of Arms' consideration and Laurel's decision.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.

Máire nic Siobhán (New device)

Sable three piles inverted in point throughout between in chief two mullets of eight points argent

Name:
The name was approved and sent to Laurel on Caid's Letter of Intent (LoI) dated 22 June 96.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dun Or, Barony of

Dun Or, Barony of -- "Dúnmór" (New order? name)

Name:

"Dún" is found in [Oireachtaigh, 1980] on pg. 31 meaning "fort" and "mór" is found in [Oireachtaigh, 1980] on pg. 50 meaning "great". Unfortunately, per rule III.2.b of the rules of submission, non-personal names are required to have a designator. Therefore, this name must be returned.

NOTE: There is a possibility that this name may conflict with that of the town of Dunmore (the Gaelic spelling is "Dún Mór").

NAME RETURNED FOR LACK OF DESIGNATOR


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Drew Lawson (New name, New device)

Per pale gules and sable, in fess a wolf's head contourney erased and a cross formy al l within a bordure embattled argent.

Name:

Submitted as "Drew Lawson of Mistwood". "Drew" is found on [Withycombe, 1977, pg. 89] under "Drogo" -- "The name [Drogo] was introduced into England at the time of the conquest" and became common in the French form "Dru" or English "Drew" . "Drew Lincs" is dated to 1455.

"Lawson" is found [Withycombe, 1977, pp. 182-3] under the heading "Laurence" as rare before the conquest, but "...it soon became common and there are great many surnames derived from it, e.g...."Lawson"." Also found as "Lawson" in [Bardsley, 1988, p. 472], under the heading "Lawson" with that spelling dated to 1554.

"of Mistwood" is a construct of the words "mist" and "wood". Submitter's documentation supports the construct "description" plus "wood", but documents "mist" in only generic terms. We have dropped the locative "of Mistwood" as we can not document any construct in period of the use of "mist" plus "anything".

Device:

The wolf's muzzle is elevated but not clearly ululant, therefore we have chosen to adopt the standard posture in blazon.

A senior herald raised the possibility that the bordure, which is used as a mark of cadency in some systems (notably but not exclusively Scots) was not acceptable as a way of unifying the underlying armory to remove the appearance of marshalling per RFS XI.3., and indeed a close reading of that section of the RFS arguably would permit a return on those grounds, since RFS XI.3a says:

Such fields may be used with identical charges over the entire field, or with complex lines of partition or charges overall that were not used for marshalling in period heraldry.

In this case we have a bordure (embattled) as the overall charge; since the bordure was used for cadency, and in particular the bordure embattled is so used in (modern) Scots heraldry ([Innes of Learney, 1978, pp. 55-6]), the rule would appear to permit a return on these grounds.

A counter argument can be made that the bordure was used for cadenced armory, and impaled arms were not inherited, thus making cadency irrelevant.

While this argument has merit, this submission also runs afoul of RFS XI.3b:

Such fields may only be used when no single portion of the field may appear to be an independent piece of armory. No section of the field may contain an ordinary that terminates at the edge of that section, or more than one charge unless those charges are part of a group over the whole field. Charged sections must all contain charges of the same type to avoid the appearance of being different from each other.

as the two charged parts of the field contain different charges.

The combination of these factors is such that we must return the device for unacceptable appearance of marshalling.

NAME APPROVED AND SET TO LAUREL.
DEVICE RETURNED FOR APPEARANCE OF MARSHALLING

James Wyvern (New name, New device)

Gules a chevron between three estoiles Or.

Name:

submitted as "James ap Wyvern". Submitter cites the name "James" to be Biblical as given. [Withycombe, 1977, page 171] dates the spelling "James" to (at least) 1240.

Submitter suggests the usage "ap Wyvern" means, loosely, "from Wales" but does not adequately support this claim. However, there appears to be evidence of names being constructed using animals and/or monsters as nicknames for bynames, such as [Bardsley, 1988, page 252] "Dragon" (and "Drake", but the latter appears to be from the male duck); "Phoenix" and "Griffin" are also found in Bardsley, although their origin do not appear to be from the monsters. The spelling "Wyvern" is apparently relatively modern [Oxford University, 1971, heading "wyvern"], but is the currently accepted spelling for the monster.

Since we cannot document the submitter's preferred for, but see reasonable support for "Wyvern" alone therefore we are dropping the patronymic "ap" and approving the name as "James Wyvern".

Device:
Gules a chevron between three estoiles Or is in conflict with Gules a chevron between two chess rooks and a caltrop Or registered to Gaufridas Baldewin Gilbertson (SCA 12/84), with one CD for the change in type of secondary charges.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL
DEVICE RETURNED FOR CONFLICT


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Celeste Cathan -- alternate persona name: Judwiga Czarny Yagello ze Smokza Jamy (Resub [Laurel] name)

Name:

NAME: Laurel had registered "Ludwiga Yagello ze Smocza Jama" in Feb. '96. This resubmission is to correct a error in spelling introduced in the Caid LoI, to accept several changes provided by Laurel and to provide additional evidence supporting the use of double given name as requested by Laurel. After consultation with Laurel Da'ud, we agreed to handle this as a resubmission.

"Judwiga" is a variant spelling of "Jadwiga". "Jadwiga" was the name of several Polish queens (given in documentation provided by the submitter, though we do not have the title page) and in [Drosdowski, 1968, pg. 104].

"Czarny" is the second given name of the Polish ruler "Leszko Czarny" (1279-1289) which was found in Herby Rycerstwa Polskiego. This documents both the name and the use of a second given name.

The remainder of the name, "Yagello ze Smokza Jamy", is taken directly from Laurel's suggested form.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.


Lyondemere, Barony of

Derdriu nic Raghnaill na Gráig na Manach (New name, New device)

Vert, a chevron Or between two crescents and a tree eradicated argent.

Name:

The name was submitted as "Derdriu Mac Rannall of Craig na Manach". It was changed to correct the problem of mixing Anglicized and Gaelic forms within the same name. Since the submitter did not want to change the given name to the Anglicized form, we have changed the rest of the name to the Gaelic form to match the given name.

"Derdriu" is found under this spelling on pp 71-72 of [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981] dated to the time of Conchobar, King of Ulster.

"Raghnaill" is found [MacLysaght, 1985, p. 254], under MacRannall, and under "Ragnall" on page 154 of [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981]. While the dating of this form is not clear, we have elected to use the spelling common to the two sources. Based on [Gwynek, 1996], it appears that "Mac Rannall" would become "nic Raghnaill", with no aspiration of the "R".

"Gráig na Manach" is found in [Room, 1988, p. 63] under the spelling "Graiguenamanagh" and is the name of a village "well known for its Cistercian monastery founded in the early 13th century." Room gives no information on the age of the specific spelling, but we have used his Irish spelling.

Device:
The crescents might be drawn better: submitter will be informed of this.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Angelique Brigette de Beauvais (New name)

Name:

"Angélique" is found in [Withycombe, 1977, page 24] under the heading "Angelica". It is cited as being the French form of "Angelica" whose name is mentioned as being used by the Italian poet, Ariosto (1474-1533). Neither [Morlet, 1968] nor [Dauzat, 1987] provide any additional support.

"Bridgette" is similar to the spelling found in Withycombe on pg 54, "Brigette", under the heading "Bridget". We are dropping the "d" out of the name so to conform with the documented spelling. We were unable to find period evidence of her preferred spelling.

"Beauvais" is found in [Dauzat and Rostaing, , pg. 65], with the earliest citation being 1058 A.D.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Torvald, Canton of (Western Seas)

Dirmyg ap Selyf (New name, New device)

Per chevron ploye throughout gules and argent, two celtic crosses argent and a portcul lis sable.

Name:

"Dirmyg" is found in [Keridwen o'r Mynydd Gwyrdd [Tangwystl verch Morgant Glasvryn], 1989, p. 83] under the heading "Dir" meaning "contempt or scorn".

"Selyf" is found on [Morgan and Morgan, 1985, pg. 191] meaning "Solomon". It is dated to AD 1350.

Device:

There was some discussion that this might be taken as a charged chapé ployé, especially in light of a different submission at this meeting. However, in this case, the underlying division is reasonably clearly a chevron throughout, not a chapé, and thus should be acceptable. We also note that the ployé allows the crosses to be drawn larger, resulting in a nicely done piece of armory.

At the meeting, the forms were, unfortunately, unsigned; the submitter has been contacted, and was able to able to mail in a signed copy before the final drafting of the LoI.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL.


Notes

The Minutes of the Caidan College of Heralds this month were taken by Madawc and Ghislaine d'Auxerre, and edited by the Crescent Principal Herald.

In Service to Caid

Eiríkr Mjoksiglandi Sigurðarson
Crescent Principal Herald


References

Bahlow, H. (1965). Deutschlands Geographische Namenwelt. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main.

Bahlow, H. (1972). Deutsches Namenlexikon. Suhrkamp, Baden-Baden.

Bain, R. (1968). The Clans and Tartans of Scotland. Fontana/Collins, Glasgow, seventh edition. Enlarged and edited by Margaret MacDougall.

Bardsley, C. W. (1988). A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Heraldry Today, Parliment Piece, Ramsbury, Wiltshire. Originally published London, 1901.

Black, G. F. (1946). The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York Public Library, New York, 1989 reprint edition.

Breul, K. (1936).Cassell's New German and English Dictionary. Funk and Wagnalls, New York.

Dauzat, A. (1987). Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France. Larousse, Paris. Reviewed and augmented by Marie-Thérèse Morlet.

Dauzat, A. and Rostaing, C. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux en France. Guénégaud, Paris, second edition. Library of James of the Lake.

Drosdowski, G. (1968). Lexikon der Vornamen. Bibliographisches Institut., Mannheim/Zbürich. Library of James of the Lake.

Gwynek, T. (1996). On feminine patronymics in Gaelic. In Amberdrake, E., editor, Proceedings of the Caidan Kingdom Scribal and Heraldic Symposium, volume II: Heralds , pages 51-57. Caidan College of Heralds.

Haraldsson, G. B. (1977). The Old Norse Name. Yggssalr Press, Olney, Maryland.

ibn Auda, D. (1994). Rules for Submissions of the College of Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. Society for Creative Anachronism, Milpitas, California. With updates as published in Laurel Letters.

Innes of Learney, T. (1978). Scots Heraldry. Johnston & Bacon, London.Revised by Malcolm R. Innes of Edingight, Marchmont Herald.

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