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Minutes of the 26 December 1995 Meeting

[Note: These submissions appear on the Apr 1996 LoAR]

Notes and Announcements

The meeting was called to order at 11:10 on 3 December 1995. In attendence were: Albyn Buckthorne, Katherine Nic Canna, Madawc, Manus, Morgan Kildarby, Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood, Eiríkr Mjoksiglandi Sigurðarson, James of the Lake, Katherine of Anglesey, Tonwen ferch Gruffyd Aur, Jasper, Gautier L'Angelier, Nygell le Byzantique, Ghislaine d'Auxerre, Christopher, Agnes of Ilford, Griffin Croswaite, Husam (sleeping), Arianna Kateryn Nunneschild, Wilhelm Roderick FitzLovel, Kelan McBride, Dietmar Reinhart von Straubing, Miguel Estiban Franco de los Rios, Catrin ferch Dafydd (and Tareyn), Damien of Baden, Darraig (nameless), Njall Olaf Hagarson, Selene, Perrin Ghelincx, Marie Elaine de Womwell, and Astriðr Selr Leifsdottir (and Elisabeth and Nathan).

Hrorek is donating heraldic books for auction at the Scribal Heraldic Symposium in March, and invited any other donations.

Nigel would like to sponsor a bake sale at 12th Night. The items must be pre-wrapped.

Catrin commented on the fact that Da'ud's tenure is almost up, and there are two new bids for the Laurel and Pelican Kings of Arms. People may wish to comment on the candidates to the Board; the deadline for such comments is December 15, 1995 (but see below).. Copies should be sent to the Board secretary, Laurel Ombudsman, and Laurel Sovereign-of-Arms. There are two bids for Laurel: quoting from the Laurel cover letter received after the meeting:

The first bid is from Jaelle of Armida/Sionyn Muirgen ní Dhomnall. Both are former principal heralds (of Atlantia and Meridies, respectively) and have been active in the College of Arms for some years. They propose to split the workload into submissions processing (Jaelle) and administration (Sionyn), following the pattern of a number of kingdoms Colleges of Heralds who have a submissions herald separate from the administrative officer; the difference here is that the administrative officer would report to the Laurel, the submissions officer. Their bid notes that they have no intention of coming in and changingany current Laurel policies or procedures, and that they intend to be very proactive in encouraging the kingdom Colleges of Heralds.

The second bid is from Talan Gwynek/Zenobia Napthali. Both are former principal heralds (of the Middle and Caid, respectively), and Talan is the current Pelican King of Arms. Both have been active in the College of Arms for some years. They propose to split the workload into administration and names registration (Talan) and armory registrations (Zenobia). The only change to current procedures that they envision is the requirement that the mailing of submissions forms packets be split, with the names submissions forms being mailed to Talan and the armory submissions forms being mailed to Zenobia.

Laurel's cover letter indicates that the deadline for comments to the Board is 5 January.

The College has moved (at the end of the December meeting) to Eiríkrs house. The January meeting will be there; for directions call Eiríkr.

Heralds are encouraged to come early to the meetings to do research and to help the typists get ahead -- the new meeting place will be open from 9:30.

Applications for the position of Dolphin Herald are being accepted; resumes should be sent to Crescent and/or Dolphin. If you're interested in other positions in the College -- currently existing or not -- talk to Eiríkr; no dramatic changes are planned, but opportunities do exist.


Caid, Kingdom of

for Naevehjem, Barony of (resub Laurel/heraldic title) title: Moucheture Pursuivant

Title:

the previous submission of June '95, Vox Draconis Pursuivant, was returned by Laurel for not following period practices.

Moucheture is a French term for "ermine spot" as defined on pg. 234 of [Parker, 1970].

We note that the Order of the Ermine was registered in Aug. '87 by Laurel as an important, non-SCA order. However, we cite: "V.2.a Difference of descriptive elements...Two descriptive elements are considered significantly different if they differ significantly in both sound and appearance"

TITLE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Altavia, Barony of

Garmon Woodworth (new badge)

(Fieldless) a caltrop within an annulet sable.

Name:
Registered December 1987
Badge:

If it is fieldless it must be returned for style -- RFS (May 94) VII.5 Fieldless style - Fieldless armory must form a self- contained design.

If it is fielded (and presumably argent), it is returned for conflict with Argent a caltrop within a bordure sable, (SCA - Device Barak ben David Oct 89).

BADGE RETURNED FOR STYLE (OR CONFLICT)


San Ambrogio, College of (Angels)

Dorothea MacAllen (new name)

Name:

Dorothea is found in [Withycombe, 1977, p. 87] as St. Dorothea, a 3rd Century martyr. "The legend of St. Dorothea, a 3rd-C Cappadocian martyr, is not found very early, and the name is not found in use in England until the end of the 15th. C (e.g. Dorothy ... born c. 1494). The main heading is "Dorothea, Dorothy"

MacAllen is found in [MacLysaght, 1985, p.4], with no date given.

[Black, 1946, p.14] notes Allen name under the heading of Alan, Allan, Allen. The same source, on p. 451 has "Finlay Macallan appears in the Chanonry of Ross, 1578"; given the variation in attested spellings, Macallen and MacAllen seem a small step.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Perrin Ghelincx (new name)

Name:

Accepted with the submitter's documentation from Studie van de Persoonsnamen in de Kasselrij Kortrijk 1350-1400, Dr Frans Debrabandere, Uitgave Familia et Patria, 1970, photocopies attached. The name is believed to be Flemish.

Perrin: In the submitter's documentation, p.517 under Pieter. Perrin is shown as an alternate to the name of the Apostle Peter. Also found in [Debrabandere, 1980, p. 207], as an "Oude naamvormen" corresponding to the "Trefwoord" Petrus. Ghelincx: p.156 under Gheylinc, 1398 Sare Ghelincx. [Debrabandere, 1980] shows Ghellynck, Gheylinck. On the same page (251), several names are shown with either a standard trailing "x" (Gloricx) or a variant (it Frederic(k)x, Ghysselinck(x); this seems to support the requested spelling.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Calafia, Barony of

Ulfhethinn the Bold (resub Caid/device)

Sable, two wolf 's teeth issuant from sinister argent.

Name:
Registered by Laurel, October 1994
Device:

His submission of Nov. '95, Sable, three wolf 's teeth issuant from sinister argent, was returned by Caid for conflict with Sable three wolves teeth issuant from dexter argent (SCA- Veniamin Nafanovich Medvednikogotev, June 1995 West). No conflicts for the current submission were found.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Darach, Shire of

Beitidh Toirrdhealbhach (resub Caid/name and device)

Per bend sable and azure, a sword inverted between two butterflies in bend argent.

Name:

[name] Her previous name submission, Beitidh An Do-Dheanadh, was returned in April 1994 for style and lack of documentation. This submission corrects the problems with the byname and attempts better documentation of the given.

Beitidh is a diminutive of Ealasaid according to [Morgan, 1989] under this spelling (please note that this book does not have page numbers). It is also found in [Bain, 1968, p. 301], where it is asserted to be Gaelic for Betsy or Betty. While we are not comfortable with this level of documentation (especially since we could not associate any dates in these sources), we are forwarding it to those with better resources.

Toirrdhealbhach is noted under Tearlach on pg. 764 of [Black, 1946] as being "[t]he older Gaelic form of Te{'a}rleach [meaning] 'well-shaped.' " Since the submitter cited Black as her source, we assume that she had misspelled this as Toirrdhealbach (omitting the next-to-last h) and have corrected this on her forms.

Device:

Her identical submission of Apr. '94 was returned for lack of name.

We advised the consulting herald to tell the submitter to draw the charges larger.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Griffin Crosthwait (new name)

Name:

Griffin: [Reaney, 1976, p. 157] dates this spelling as a given name to 1130.

The surname Crosthwait is also found in [Reaney, 1976], and p. 89 dates various -- other -- spellings as a surname beginning in 1242, but does not show this specific spelling. [Ekwall, 1960, p. 132] dates the submitted spelling as a place name to 1190.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dreiburgen, Barony of

Edana of Dreiburgen (New name)

Name:
[name] Edana is claimed by the submitter as meaning "little fire." We cannot document Edana itself from our sources. The submitter asserts that it appears in The Book of Irish Names (no author, date, or page number given); however, she did not include a photocopy. However, [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981] cite Edan as the Anglicized form of the Gaelic {'A}edán, famously borne by the founder of Lindesfarne Abbey (p. 13-14), and Edana may therefore be considered to be an example of the common practice of adding an "-a" to a masculine name to make it feminine. Additionally, it appears that Edana is a not implausible variant of (believe it or not) Edith. [Withycombe, 1977, page 93], (under Edith) lists the variant forms Edan, Edine, and Editha. Given these variations, Edana doesn't seem out of the question.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Kelan McBride of Arainn (resub Caid/badge)

(Fieldless) on a tower azure a dragon's head couped contourney argent.

Name:
approved by Laurel, Apr. '92
Badge:

his previous submission of Aug. '95, (Fieldless) a dragon's head couped contourney Or, was returned for conflict.

There was some discussion over how much neck would be included in a dragon's head couped; the Pictorial Dictionary notes that a dragon's head couped includes the long neck.

We note (Fieldless) a chessrook azure (SCA, Serena Lascelles, Sep. '93) but as a heraldic chessrook and a tower differ significantly, and -- ignoring this -- there is 1 CD for fieldlessness and 1 CD for addition of a tertiary, do not feel it is a conflict.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Dragon's Citadel, Incipient Canton of (Dreiburgen)

Auliffe of the Blood Sun (resub Caid/name and device)

Azure, an eagle displayed, on a chief Or a demi-sun gules.

Name:

His previous submission of Nov. '95, Iain Mac Faolciar the Lost, was returned for grammar.

Auliffe is the undated anglicised form of Amlaíb according to [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981] under the latter spelling on pg. 22.

The Blood Sun, according to notes given by the submitter, is the "day in (sic) which Cuchulain was said to let fall the drops of blood from his hair as tears to the lost Celts, and they fell on the sun, covering it in the red of Celtic blood" (from the Grolier's Multimedia Encyclopedia version 7.0). As a CD-ROM the submitter could not provide copies of the documentation (though he does list the bibliography from the file). We could not corroborate this legend from any of our sources, including Practical Celtic Magic by Muray Hope.

Day names were used (in English) as both surnames and (more commonly) given names. Easter is found on pg. 92 of [Withycombe, 1977]. Under that entry, she (Withycombe) comments that Christmas, Pascal, Pentecost, etc were "formerly used as christian names." Yule is found on page 397 of [Reaney, 1976]/ Monday is found on pg. 222 of [Withycombe, 1977]; used as both a given and a surname; the comment is made that Friday and Saturday were used as well. These seem to indicate that the use of a day name as a surname is not implausible, although the evidence for "Blood Sun" in this sense is less clear.

Device:
his previous submission of Nov. '95, Azure, an eagle displayed and in chief a demi-sun Or, was returned for conflict with SCA-Gilbert of the Glens; Azure, an eagle displayed grasping a sun in both claws, Or., which this design change clears. Not other conflicts were found.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Finn Mathie (resub Caid name for badge/badge unpended)

Warband name: Battel of the Fang
Per bend gules and sable a pile between two piles inverted argent.

Name:

The submitter's name, Finn Mathie, was registered by Laurel on the October '95 LoAR (note the absence of the trailing "r").

The previous submission The Honorable Company of the Fang was returned for presumption (the use of the term The Honorable).

Battel: [Oxford University, 1971, p. 177] shows "Battell", in several spellings with the meaning "the main body of an army or naval force" dates to 1489. The spelling Battel is dated to the 16th Century, although in a different meaning.

Fang: [Oxford University, 1971, p.960] meaning "a canine tooth"; both this spelling and this meaning are period, although this spelling first appears in this meaning in the 18th Century.

Badge:
The badge has previously been pended because of lack of the proper number and type of forms.

NAME AND BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Mora Naturalist of Blackmarsh (New household name)

household name: House Dragonmarsh

Name:

Registered by Laurel, Feb. '90.

Household Name Dragon is dated to 1591 under this spelling on pg. 796 of the Compact OED.

Marsh is dated to 1523 under this spelling on pg. 1731 of the Compact OED.

The combination is not unreasonable period practice; [Ekwall, 1960] gives Drakelow meaning "dragon's mound" (pg. 150), providing an example of "dragon" + feature.

HOUSEHOLD NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Signý Finnsdóttir (name resub Caid and new device)

Or, three mullets of eight points vert pierced, a chief triangular gules.

Name:

[name] The name components are found in [Haraldsson, 1977]: Signý on p. 14, and Finnr on p. 9.

The patronymic is formed from Finnr plus dóttir (Norse for "daughter" Geirr Bassi p.17); it was submitted as Finnrsdóttir; we have deleted the nominiative "r" to form the genitive, which is the usual form of a patronymic.

Device:
No conflicts found.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Tuathlaith ne Breasláa (marked as resub name)

Not a resubmission because the previous submission is still in process, but no money was included, as the submitter thought it was a resubmission. Withdrawn by submitting herald to consult with the submitter regarding her preferences. There is a possible issue with pretension that we did not take the time to adjudicate.

SUBMISSION WITHDRAWN


Gallavally, Canton of (Dreiburgen)

Caomhlú Cionnaola ni Fhaoláin na Abhainn Seileachne (name and device)

Vert, a wolf 's head caboshed with wings argent, on a chief Or three estoilles gules.

Name:

the original submission (Caomhlú Cionnaola Nic Faelan na Seileach Abhainn) was changed to correct for case and aspiration.

Caomhlú is noted as the "name of the father of St. Cáemgen (Kevin) of Glendalough" under "Cáemlug: Caomhlú" on pg. 41 of [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981].

Cionnaola is noted as "very common in the early period" under "Cenn Fáelad: Cionnaola" on pg. 49 of [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981].

For the remainder of the name, we noted last month, under Fionnuala nic Faelan na Seileach Abhainn:

Fhaoláin [Faol'ain] is the aspirated genitive form of Faolán [Faol'an] which is found under this spelling on pg. 184 of Woulfe, and in the form "Mac Faoláin" [Mac Faol'ain] on page 359 of the same source.

According to the documentation given by the submitter (photocopies from Renton and MacDonald, Aba-r!, a Gaelic-English dictionary [publisher and date unknown]), Seileach means 'willow' (on pg. 63) and Abahainn means 'river' (on pg. 1). The submitter offers the example "Adare" - "Oak Tree Ford", asserted to be in Irish Place Names. We lack the resources to determine if this is the correct form for such a locative.

This month we were able to do somewhat more research on the byname: from examples in Irish Place Names by Flanagan and Flanagan (1994) the majority of place names places the feature before the descriptor. For example: Achadh Abhla is "field of the apple tree" (pg. 165 under Aghyowle), Abhainn dá Darach is "river of the oak" (pg. 200 under Daar River), Gleann Fearna is "valley of the alders" (pg. 215 under Glenfarne).

This would appear to indicate that the locative should be "na Seileachne Abhainn". We understand that she wishes her name to match her sister's (Fionnuala nic Faelan na Seileach Abhainn, on Caid Nov '95 LoI), so we are forwarding it and requesting that the two be corrected to conform to each other if changes are made to either.

Device:
no conflicts found.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Fionnuala nic Faelan na Seileach Abhainn (device resub Caid)

Per fess wavy argent and azure, a fox courant sable and three willow trees Or.

Name:
On Caid November Letter of Intent (LoI)
Device:
The original proposed blazon was Azure three willow trees Or, on a chief wavy argent a fox courant sable. The trees would cause a per fess line of division to be moved towards the chief, and the per fess blazon more accurately represents the emblazon. No conflicts found.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Gyldenholt, Barony of

Conchobhar an Dearg (Name resubmission Laurel)

Name:

[name] His currently registered name is John of Gyldenholt, registered as a holding name in July of this year, when Conchobhar Ó Faoláin (his submission) was held to conflict with the previously registered Conchobar mac Fáeláin.

Conchobhar: [Ó Corrain and Maguire, 1981, p. 57] dates it to 882, and indicates it was popular in the later Middle Ages.

an Dearg: From "an jarrack" Gaelic meaning the red; De Bhaldraithe English-Irish Dictionary (Oifig an 'Solathrair) is asserted to give an dearg for "the red" under "red" p.585.

[Oireachtaigh, 1980, p. 42] gives dearg and rua as translations for red.

NAME APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Ghislaine d'Auxerre (New badge)

(Fieldless) a fox sable marked argent rampant contourney ravishing a goose argent.

Name:
Registered by Laurel, July '90. Note: Laurel had approved an incorrect spelling (omitting the second i in Ghislaine) and a name appeal was approved by Laurel in Apr. '92.
Badge:

On pp. 26-7 of [von Volborth, 1991] there is a depiction of this posture (though not contourney) in an escutcheon which the author notes is the "ancient arms of von Brandenstein family." It did, however, cause some discussion on how to properly blazon it; we originally blazoned the posture of the fox as "holding in its jaws a goose".

However, further research into the posture indicates that this is a sufficiently common posture for wolves, especially in Spanish heraldry, that the term "ravishing" or "ravissant" is applied to it ([Woodward and Burnett, 1969, page 228] and [Rothery, 1985, page 40]). While this term is somewhat obscure, it is available in standard references and describes this posture correctly, so we have adopted it in the blazon.

We also note that the goose's feet and bill are orange, and thus the goose could have been blazoned as a domestic goose proper. However, since the entire body of the bird is in fact argent we prefer to so blazon it and regard the tinctures of the feet and bill as artistic detailing.

We consider this clear of (Fieldless) a wolf rampant contourney regardant sable, charged on the shoulder with a decrescent Or (SCA, Cudub MacArtuir, Aug. '91), with 1 CD for fieldlessness and 1 CD for any of several changes, the most prominant of which is the addition of a tertiary (the goose). Upon approval by Laurel of this badge, she wishes to transfer a joint badge Per chevron azure and vert, two compass stars argent and a bear passant contourney Or, (March '94) which she shares with James Andrew MacAllister, to that individual.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Hrodr-Havardr Haconson (new badge)

(Fieldless) a warhammer Or.

Name:
Registered July 95
Badge:
Somewhat to our surprise, we found no conflicts for this.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

James Andrew MacAllister (new badge)

(Fieldless) a bear sejant hind legs extended forward Or, sustaining a cross crosslet fitchy quarterly argent and vert.

Name:
Registered, apparently 9501
Badge:
There is some doubt as to whether the bear is in a blazonable posture. No conflicts found.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Heatherwyne, Shire of

Joan Atzur d'Andorra (resub Caid/device)

Sable, on a sun between three caltrops within a bordure Or, a caltrop sable.

Name:
Approved by Laurel, May '94
Device:

Her previous submission of May '94 sans bordure was returned by Laurel for conflict (SCA, Kourost Bernard, Sable, a sun eclipsed Or).

With regard to the emblazon, we will advise the submitter that the bordure should be wider, the interior lines of the caltrops should be used -- which are currently only on some of the emblazon forms -- and the rays of the sun should be larger.

We consider this clear of Sable, a sun between four oak leaves, all within a bordure Or (SCA, Ciarrai MacBraonain an Taghdach, March '81), with 2 CDs for number and type of secondaries and 1 CD for addition of tertiary.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Ildhafn, Incipient Shire of

Alianor Nic Lawemund (new name and device (electronic submission))

Per saltire argent and purpure, in pale two roses and in fess two wolves salient counterchanged.

Name:

[name] Alianor: [Withycombe, 1977, p. 96] under Eleanor. Similar forms are Alienor, is dated to 12th to 15th C. Alianora is dated to 1428, Alienora dates to 1199. Alianora and Alienora document the a/e shift. Applying the same a/e shift to "Alienor" gives the desired form "Alianor".

Nic Lawemund: Lawemund appears in [Black, 1946] as a given name, in this spelling, dated to 1292 on p.413 (under the heading Lamond). Black also cites the form Maklaweman so Nic Lawemund seems a reasonable variation. "Nic" was submitted with a capital "N" and we have retained it based on the submitter's preference.

Device:
We note Per saltire purpure and argent, two unicorns rampant argent and two roses slipped and leaved purpure, (SCA Alexandrina Kleinschmidt Jun 94 Middle); despite the strong design similarity, there is a CD for the field and CDs for the type and arrangement of the charges.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL

Andrew MacGregor of Glen Lyon (resub Caid/name and device (electronic submission))

Argent, a sea-wolf tailed as a fish counter-ermine.

Name:

his previous submission of Nov. '95, Andrew MacGregor, was returned in Kingdom for an exact SCA conflict.

Andrew is noted as the patron saint of Scotland under this spelling on pg. 23 of [Withycombe, 1977], and is noted as being popular from the 12th century.

Macgregor is noted as "proscribed in 1603 by Act of Parliament" under this spelling on pg. 505 of [Black, 1946]. We assumed that the people involved were older than three at the time. We note the difference in capitalization, but consider it a plausible variation given the apparent variation in capitalization practice.

Glen Lyon is noted as located in Scotland on pg. 687 of [Seltzer, 1952]. Addition of a toponymic seems to avoid confusion with the previous conflict in a nicely period way.

Device:

his previous submission of Nov. '95 (which is identical) was returned for lack of name.

We note that under Sea-Monster in the Pictorial Dictionary that "Society heraldry defines the 'sea-wolf' as a fish-tailed demi-wolf," but we have blazoned as the above to avoid any possible confusion with the Sea-Dog, which is usually depicted with four fins for paws.

We note Argent, scaly vert, a sea-wolf tailed as a fish erect sable attired of ram's horns Or (Wolfram Faust, Feb. '92) as there is 1 CD for the field, and 1 CD for the tincture of the primary charge. There was some discussion if there was a difference in tincture between sable and counter-ermine, but since it is both a distinct fur and logically equivalent to adding a semé of ermine spots, this would appear not to be an issue.

NAME AND DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Nordwache, Barony of

Leximus Taurus (new device)

Sable, a fess argent, overall a triangle throughout between three columns counterchanged.

Name:
On Caid Nov 95 LoI
Device:

The fess needs to be wider.

There was a significant difference of opinion as to whether this was "obtrusively modern" in the sense of RFS VIII.4d. The College narrowly leaned towards sending it on to Laurel for registration.

DEVICE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Wintermist, Shire of

Finella Harper (new badge)

(Fieldless) a jester's hood argent.

Name:
Registered 9408
Badge:
This is close to Gyronny sable and vert, a fool's cap argent (SCA - Badge Sionyn Muirgen ni Dhomnhall Jul 88) We see one CD for the field/fieldless and one for difference of type between hood and cap. While a comparision of the emblazons may be in order, in general, we would expect the addition of the shoulders and part surrounding the face to provide a significant visual difference.

BADGE APPROVED AND SENT TO LAUREL


Postmeeting

The meeting ended at about 5:00 pm, and adjourned to the Christmas party, following which the library was moved to Eiríkr's house. The minutes were taken by Agnes and Christopher, edited by Eiríkr, and "abused" [her word] by Catrin.


References

Bain, R. (1968). The Clans and Tartans of Scotland. Fontana/Collins, Glasgow, seventh edition. Enlarged and edited by Margaret MacDougall.

Black, G. F. (1946). The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History. New York Publlic Library, New York, 1989 reprint edition.

Debrabandere, F. (1980). Kortrijkse Naamkunde 1200-1300: Met een Kumulatief Familienamenregister. Onomastica Neerlandica, Leuven.

Draconarius of Mistholme, B. and Akagawa Yoshio (1988). A pictorial dictionary of heraldry as used in the Society for Creative Anachronism. Privately published.

Ekwall, E. (1960). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names. Oxford/Clarendon, Oxford, fourth edition.

Haraldsson, G. B. (1977). The Old Norse Name. Yggssalr Press, Olney, Maryland.

Iathus of Scara and von Markheim, A., editors (1995). An Ordinary of Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. Free Trumpet Press, P. O. Box 3266, Berkeley, California, fifth edition.

ibn Auda, D. (1994). Rules for Submissions of the College of Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. Society for Creative Anachronism, Milpitas, California. Published in the Proceedings of the Trimaran Knowne World Heraldic and Scribal Symposium, A.S. XXIX.

MacLysaght, E. (1985). The Surnames of Ireland. Irish Academic Press, Dublin, sixth edition.

Morgan, P. (1989). Ainmean Chloinne: Scottish Gaelic Names for Children. Taigh na Teud Music Publishers, Isle of Skye.

Ó Corrain, D. and Maguire, F. (1981). Gaelic Personal Names. The Academy Press, Dublin.

Oireachtaigh, B. B. (1980). Nuafhoclóir: English-Irish Dictionary. Ó Fallúin, Dublin.

Oxford University, editor (1971). The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Parker, J. (1970). A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Tuttle, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle edition.

Reaney, P. H. (1976). A Dictionary of British Surnames. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, second (r. m. wilson) edition.

Rothery, G. C. (1985). Concise Encyclopedia of Heraldry. Bracken, London. First published as ABC of Heraldry in 1915.

Seltzer, L. E., editor (1952). The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. Columbia University Press, Morningside Heights, New York.

von Volborth, C.-A. (1991). The Art of Heraldry. Tiger, London.

Withycombe, E. G. (1977). The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford University Press, Oxford, third edition. reprinted 1982.

Woodward, J. and Burnett, G. (1969). Woodward's A Treatise on Heraldry British and Foreign. Tuttle, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle edition. Intro. by L.G. Pine.


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